Dahlia or Dahlia (Dahlia) belongs to the plants of the Astrov family and is represented by more than forty species. Dahlias in the garden are a real decoration. Most often, perennial dahlias are planted on sites that do not require special care and are perfectly adapted to the soil and climatic conditions of our country.
The flowering plant has simple, pairwise sitting leaves. Characteristic of the genus is the presence of hollow stems, the height of which can reach 2.0-2.5 m. The root system is relatively developed. All perennial dahlias have fleshy, tuberous-thickened roots.
The aerial part of the plant is characterized by annual death in the fall to the root neck. The stem part is straight, with branching, smooth or rough. Cirrus leaves, but species with whole pubescent leaves are also found.
Garden plants of this genus have inflorescences-baskets. Marginal flowers of reed type, large sizes, various staining. The middle flowers are tubular type, golden yellow or brownish red. The plant blooms for a long time. Timing may vary depending on varietal characteristics. Fruits are represented by achenes.
How to save dahlias in winter
The main types
Decorative dahlias vary in the shape and size of the flowers, as well as the timing of flowering, plant height and the duration of the vegetative period.
In size and diameter, dahlia flowers can be:
- giant - more than 25 cm;
- large - 20-25 cm;
- medium - 15-20 cm;
- small - 10-15 cm;
- miniature - less than 10 cm.
When choosing a variety and type, you should pay attention to the following indicators:
- tall hybrids and varieties Dhlia for border design have a stem height of 1.2 m or more;
- medium-sized hybrids and varieties Dahlia for border design have a stem height of 0.9-1.1 m;
- low hybrids and Dhlia varieties for border design have a stem height of less than 0.9 m;
- flower beds hybrids and varieties Dhlia are 0.35-0.60 m high;
- dwarf hybrids and Dhlia varieties have a height of not more than 0.3 m.
In recent years, breeders have received a large number of varieties and hybrid forms that differ in the shape and structure of the flower.
|Flower structure||Inflorescence characteristic||Plant height||The best varieties|
|Plain||With a diameter of not more than 10 cm, consists of extreme and small tubular central flowers||0.45-0.60 m||"Hello Hammer", "Princess Marie-Rose", "Orange"|
|Anemone||With a diameter of up to 10 cm, with one or numerous rows of extreme flowers and the middle in the form of elongated and large tubular type of flowers||0.60-0.90 m||Vera Higgins, Lucky, Comet|
|Collar||Diameters up to 10 cm, with one outer row of flat marginal flowers and an inner row of narrow collar flowers||0.75-1.2 m||"La Gioconda", "Claire de Lune", "Chimborazo"|
|Pion-shaped||Diameters from 12 to 15 cm, with two or more rows of flat marginal flowers and a tubular middle||0.75-1.2 m||"Bishop Landuff", "Symphony", "Charm"|
|Decorative||Terry, with a diameter of 8 cm with wide blunt end flowers||0.9-1.5 m||Jocondo, Thames Valley, Terpo|
|Globular||Terry, flattened, with a diameter of 8 to 15 cm||0.9-1.2 m||Crichton Honey, Doreen Hayes,|
|Pompom||Terry look with a diameter of inflorescences up to 5 cm and curled, obtuse extreme flowers||0.9-1.2 m||"Business Card", "Willo's Violet",|
|Needle or cactus||Terry, with a diameter of more than 8 cm, with narrow and sharp extreme flowers||0.9-1.5 m||Dani, Apple blossom, Irish visit|
|Semi-cactus||Terry, with a diameter of more than 8 cm, with pointed and partially curled extreme flowers||0.9-1.5 m||Hamari Boy, Autumn Fire,|
Best annual varieties
Annual dahlias are often grown in the country and combined in plantings with other ornamental plants. The most popular varieties take root well in the garden, do not need intensive care and delight with abundant flowering for a long time.
The height of annual dahlias rarely exceeds 40-45 cm, so you do not need to tie them to a support, normalize flowering and pinch the tops, which greatly facilitates care in the conditions of home gardening.
|Plant||Height in cm||Diameter in cm||Dyeing||Features|
|Ellie||Herbaceous bush with strong and straight stems||60||8-10||Pink||Non-double|
|"Linda"||Herbaceous bush with strong and straight stems||60||8-10||White||Non-double|
|Amber Order||Branchy low plant||45-50||7-9||Light yellow||Simple inflorescences|
|"Santa Marta"||Compact bush with good leafiness||Up to 35 cm||8-10||Purple||Bright double and semi-double flowers|
|Aurika||A branchy but compact plant||Up to 35 cm||8-10||Bright orange||Bright double and semi-double flowers|
|"Mexican"||Compact bush with good leafiness||Up to 35 cm||8-10||Bright red||Abundant and long flowering|
|"Red Riding Hood"||Herbaceous or bushy plant with strong straight stems||60||8-10||Red reed and yellow large tubular flowers||Group of non-double varieties|
|"Mephistopheles"||Branch plant with bronze leaves||45-50||9-10||Bright double and semi-double flowers||Large-flowered mixture|
|"Princess Budur"||Herbaceous or bushy plant with strong straight stems||60||8-10||Purple reed and yellow large tubular flowers||Non-double|
Best perennial varieties
Perennials are more demanding on growing conditions, and it is more difficult to care for them than for annual varieties. Nevertheless, many flower growers seek to grow perennial dahlias, which are favorably distinguished by a variety of shapes and coloring.
|Grade name||Plant||Height in cm||Flower coloring||Features|
|"La Gioconda"||Medium-sized and medium-leaved plant with a powerful stem||Up to 75||Cherry-colored outer circle, cream petal inner, large core||Collared Multilayer Inflorescences|
|"Twyning's Smarty"||Medium-sized and medium-leaved plant with a powerful stem||80||The petals are white and lilac, and the middle is yellow||Collared Multilayer Inflorescences|
|"Princesse Gracia"||Compact and stunted plant with bright green leaves||30-35||Dark pink flower with a yellow center||Undersized decorative variety|
|"Myrtle's Folly"||Tall and very powerful bush and massive stem||120||Diameter 15-20 cm, cream color with dark pink tips of the petals||Belongs to the category of fringed varieties|
|"Downham Royal"||The bush is powerful and lush, with abundant flowering.||110||Maroon stain with a slightly purple tint in the center||Pompom variety|
|"Noreen"||Well-developed powerful plant, ideal for cutting||100||The diameter of the flower is 10 cm, the color is pinkish||Pompom variety|
|"Eveline"||Tall, with a thick but brittle stem plant||80-90||White-purple in diameter, about 11-13 cm in diameter||A view with spherical inflorescences|
|"Yellow Star"||Abundantly flowering tall plant with good foliage||120||Diameter 10-15 cm, yellow staining||Inflorescences are similar to cactus needles|
If annual dahlias are propagated by seed, then perennial varieties can be propagated by seed and vegetatively. The most popular and simplest technique is the division of tubers:
- tubers with the purpose of awakening, put in boxes on sawdust and water abundantly;
- after waking up, cut the tubers into parts so that each fragment has one or more kidneys;
- sprinkle all slices with wood ash and dry at room temperature during the day;
- Dig the soil and loosen it, clean it of weed vegetation and disinfect it with a solution based on Fitosporin-M biofungicide;
- plant tubers to a depth of 8-10 cm in the last decade of May or early June;
- planting should end with abundant watering of plants with room temperature water.
The method of propagation involves the following technology of propagation of decorative flowering culture:
- in the spring, with a sharp and clean knife, carefully cut the stalk 7-9 cm long from the tuber, capturing a small plume of the peel;
- immerse the stalk for several hours in a growth biostimulator or a solution based on wood ash;
- fill the landing tanks with light and nutritious soil and plant the cuttings that have undergone training;
- cover plantings with plastic wrap, but control the formation of condensate and ensure regular ventilation;
- after the formation of the root system, young plants are ready for planting in a permanent place.
It should be remembered that if we plant tall varieties, then you need to take care of installing the supports and fixing the stems of growing plants to them. When using green cuttings for propagation, it is possible to preserve all the varietal qualities of the decorative culture, therefore this option for obtaining a new plant in home gardening is used quite often.
As a rule, subject to the rules of planting and cultivation technology, dahlias please with abundant flowering up to severe frosts. Nevertheless, decorative culture needs to comply with simple, but very important agricultural practices:
- mulching of dahlias planting gives a good result, which not only protects ornamental plants from slug damage, but also reduces the need for weeding and loosening the soil, and also helps to maintain soil moisture necessary for the growth and development of the crop;
- very important for dahlias and irrigation activities, which should be plentiful; in the absence of rain and hot weather, water the plants a couple of times a week and accompany the procedure by surface loosening of the soil, preventing the formation of a crust;
- it should be remembered that dahlias react very negatively to excessive waterlogging of the soil, and stagnation of moisture often causes rotting of the root system and death of the plant;
- in order to ensure the flow of nutrients to plants, it is necessary to fertilize twice a month, alternating mineral and organic fertilizing;
- dahlias respond very positively to the introduction of 15 g of ammonium nitrate, as well as feeding infusion of mullein diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 10, or bird droppings diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 20;
- at the stage of the appearance of the kidneys, it is required to fertilize with superphosphate and potash fertilizers at the rate of 25-30 g per 10 liters of water, this amount of nutrient solution is enough to feed seven to eight adult plants;
- it is not recommended to leave more than three shoots on the plant and more than two buds on the peduncle, which allows you to get large and decorative inflorescences;
- all faded flowers, as well as lateral shoots on tall varieties, must be removed.
When the first significant frosts occur, dahlia tubers should be dug up, having previously cut off the aerial part of the plant at a height of 5-10 cm. It is recommended to remove tubers from the soil in the morning, in dry and fairly sunny weather. Dug up tubers should be cleaned of soil and dried well.
Before storing the root of the flower’s neck to prevent rotting, dust it with wood ash or powdered activated carbon. Storage is carried out at a temperature of 3-5 ° C and humidity indicators at the level of 60-70%, in a well-ventilated room.
Watering and feeding
As for the features of caring for perennial dahlias, the main condition here is proper watering.
These plants are very fond of moisture, but its excess can have a catastrophic effect on rhizomes. Watering the flowers is necessary regularly, but in small portions. It is enough that the water soaks an earthen lump of 25-30 cm.
But much also depends on weather conditions. If it often rains, then watering can be reduced to a minimum or even not watering the flowers at all. Checking if a plant needs extra moisture is very simple. You just need to loosen the soil and try to deepen the index finger into it. If the ground is still wet, then watering should be delayed. If dry, a small amount of water will not hurt at all.
Dahlias need constant feeding. This is especially true for the flowering period. Organic, phosphoric, nitrogenous fertilizers and wood ash are best suited. If this is a purchased fertilizer, then it should be diluted in water in a certain proportion, and then water the plant with this liquid. Sometimes you can use fertilizers, which in small quantities are simply poured onto the ground.
If we are talking about organics, then it is better to do so. Wait until the earth dries. Then, at a distance of about 10-15 cm from the bush with dahlias, make a small circular groove about 5 cm deep where you want to lay compost or manure. After that, the groove is filled with water, and then sprinkled on top of the soil. So the plant will for a long time receive from the soil all the nutrients it needs.
In order for dahlias to please bright and large flowers as often as possible, it is necessary to do stepsoning - cutting off excess stems. This is recommended to be done constantly, and during flowering to remove even more shoots.
Circumcision of shoots that come out of the sinuses of young leaves is carried out by pruning shears or blades, if they are very thin. At the end of the procedure, the places of cuts should be sprinkled with charcoal so that pathogenic bacteria do not develop there. It is strictly forbidden to pinch in the open sun or in wet weather. In the first case, this will lead to overdrying of the stems, and in the second it can even provoke rapid decay and death of the plant.
Use in landscape design
One-year undersized mini dahlias and compact varieties are great for growing on flowerbeds and decorating borders. Such plants look very decorative on the gentle slopes on the south side and as potted plants, which allows you to beautifully design terraces, balconies and loggias.
How to germinate dahlias
The flower is popular in landscape design and is used for cutting. Small forms are indispensable in ceremonial flower beds, mixborders and background groups. Especially popular among domestic amateur gardeners is the charming early flowering Figaro Mars mixture with a compact form of bushes and large double and semi-double flowers that can decorate any flower garden in open ground.
In order for your flowers to please you next year, you need to know what their preparation for the winter season is. No need to wait for winter to dig up tubers. This work is being done back in September. To do this, cut the stems about 20 cm high from the ground, carefully dig up the soil around the stalk and take out the tubers. If you notice sick or damaged parts, then they must be removed and destroyed. We place the healthy tubers in a box, sprinkle with sawdust or wood ash on top.
Tubers are well preserved at a temperature of 6-7 ° C.
It may be a basement, but it should be well ventilated.
Planting and care, made taking into account the characteristics of these beautiful flowers, will help to get a result that will give you joy for many years.