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Manchurian Kirkazon (Aristolochia manshuriensis) is a tree-like liana from the genus and family of Kirkazonovs, a subclass of Magnolids. An amazingly beautiful plant in the wild grows in the provinces of China, the mountainous regions of the Korean Peninsula. In Russia, this vine can be found in the northeast, in the Primorsky Territory, in the Khasansky and Nadezhdinsky districts. The highly decorative plant is used to create beautiful arches, awnings and fences, fences and perimeter space. And in oriental folk medicine, Manchurian Kirkazon is widely used for the treatment and prevention of a number of serious diseases.
Description of the Manchu Kirkazon
A tree-like liana grows up to 15 m in the wild. The trunk diameter at the ground is up to 7.5 cm. The plant is supported by trees and tall shrubs. If the Manchurian kirkazon spreads along the ground, its length is much shorter. Under conditions of artificial agricultural technology, the plant reaches 9-12 m.
Young shoots of Kirkazon with their upper parts twine around the supports in a spiral counterclockwise. They are flexible, have a light green, yellowish or pale green color, covered with a light velvety down. In the second year, the sprouts of the lianas become woody, their color changes to olive and or greenish-ocher. Old shoots are strong, covered with cork, grayish-brown, reddish-brown color with longitudinal gray scales. The Manchurian kirkazon develops a root system in the first 3 years, after which it grows very quickly - up to 15 cm per day, actively releasing side shoots and capturing significant areas.
Liana Manchurian has large, rounded-heart-shaped leaves. Pointed tip. Above, a bright green, intense lime color, the underside is grayish. Young leaves are covered with a delicate nap, then they become dull-smooth. A lighter mesh of veins is clearly visible on the surface.
The Manchurian Kirkazon produces buds in April, and the peak of flowering occurs in May-June. Flowers are single or paired, in the form of thickened jugs of the original color. The tube 4-6 cm long has a greenish-yellow or ocher hue, colored from the inside with bright burgundy-red spots. The petal-limb with a diameter of 1.8-2.2 cm has 3 lobes. It can be deep red-brown, purple, light green-yellow, with reddish specks. The fruit is a capsule similar to a cucumber, 6-10 cm long, which contains triangular seeds 5-7 mm in size.
Kirkazon Manchu has a rather pungent aroma. It attracts flower flies, mostly males. Crawling into the middle of the flowers, they promote self-pollination, and often remain inside the bud, entangled in the hairs.
The broad, heart-shaped leaves of the Manchurian Kirkazon from afar resemble the scales of a giant bright green reptile
Application in landscape design
Kirkazon Manchurian is used by gardeners and landscape designers in vertical gardening. This is one of the best decorative lianas, which is distinguished by fast, friendly growth and dense greenery. The overgrown plant creates a magnificent effect of a solid carpet of large heart scales.
With the help of a tree-like liana, they decorate the facades of houses and the walls of gazebos, creating solid green curtains. They make original tunnels, passages and awnings. They frame the fences of the recreation areas and the fences between the sites. The Manchu kirkazon looks great on columns, free-standing pergolas, mature trees or pillars.
Kirkazon Manchu looks amazing in the form of green arches and labyrinths
Manchurian kirkazon can be propagated in several ways:
- seeds that are harvested in the autumn;
- cuttings cut in spring or autumn - shoots 20-25 cm long with several living buds, obliquely placed in a fertile substrate;
- a branch-shoot, the middle of which is pressed to the ground with staples, and the top is tied vertically, the pressed part must be covered with fertile soil and watered, a root system is formed in a year, and the layers can be separated from the mother plant and the Manchurian Kirkazon can be transplanted to a new place.
The most convenient and fastest way to propagate vines is by cuttings.
Planting and leaving
When planting a Manchurian kirkazon tree liana, you must follow a number of rules:
- planting requires an area protected from strong winds that break fragile branches;
- the soil should be light, nutritious, loose;
- liana kirkazon Manchurian requires partial shade or light that has passed through the crowns of trees, direct sunlight burns the delicate leaves of the plant.
Important! Water stagnation in the roots of the vine should not be allowed. The Manchurian Kirkazon can rot and die.
In the first month after planting, the sprouts of the Manchurian kirkazon require shelter from direct sunlight
Landing terms and rules
It is recommended to plant Kirkazon Manchurian in early spring, so that it has time to take root over the summer. The distance between the holes should be at least a meter, and the depth of the planting pit should be 50 cm. They should be 1.4-1.8 m away from the walls of the houses, since the root system of the tree-like liana is branched. At the bottom of the planting pit, it is imperative to lay a drainage layer 10-20 cm thick, pour a mound of fertile soil.
Carefully remove the Manchurian vine sapling from the pot, set it in the hole and cover it with earth. Slightly press down on the soil, pour 20 liters of settled water. Mulch with sawdust, peat, sand, coniferous litter, bark.
Attention! Planting material is best purchased from nurseries or trusted distributors.
Kirkazon Manchu is unpretentious. Caring for him consists in timely moistening, feeding and pruning. During the period of active growth, watering should be frequent so that the earth is well moistened. In a rainy summer, the schedule must be adjusted downward so as not to flood the Manchu Kirkazon.
Formative pruning is carried out in the spring, removing side shoots up to 3-4 buds. The central stem is pinched if necessary. Cleaning of broken, diseased or dried branches, old foliage is obligatory. Usually, sanitization is done in the fall or early spring.
It is necessary to feed the Manchu Kirkazon in spring and August. It is recommended to use natural organic fertilizers - solutions of mullein and bird droppings, horse manure, herbal infusions, humus, humus.
Advice! If you use compost, peat, humus or garden greens as mulch, then additional feeding is not required.
Preparing for winter
Kirkazon Manchurian can withstand winter frosts down to -30 degrees, therefore, as a rule, it does not need additional shelter. If the winter is expected to be harsh, then the vine must be tied with burlap, several layers of covering material.
Pests and diseases
The Manchurian Kirkazon is resistant to diseases, and pests are very reluctant to attack a toxic plant. Root rot is dangerous for him, which is formed as a result of excessive watering or stagnation of water in the soil. Too humid air and soil can provoke the development of fungus. In this case, it is necessary to carry out the treatment with a fungicide. If insects are seen on Kirkazone, you can dilute the infusion of onion husks, tobacco or garlic with laundry or green soap, and spray the affected areas.
Value and chemical composition
The healing properties of the Manchurian kirkazon tree vine or, as it is called in China, "madouling" have been widely known since ancient times in the East. This is one of the most effective natural cardiotropic drugs known to mankind today. Avicenna wrote about him in his writings, the Manchu kirkazon is also mentioned in the treatises of ancient Chinese folk healers. Since the 80s, its properties have been studied at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Kirkazon Manchurian contains the following substances:
- aristolochic acids A, D, I, IV, which are extremely rare;
- lignin, hemicellulose;
- an essential oil composed of terpenes, a-pinenes, camphenes and bornyl acetate:
- sesquiterpenoids - manshirolin, aristoloside, b-sitosterol;
- alkaloids, glycosides;
- vanilla, p-hydroxybenzoic, oleanolic, ferulic acids;
- manjurolide, stigmasterol, methylvanilate.
Due to its chemical composition, Manchu Kirkazon has a beneficial effect on the heart muscle, preventing myocardial infarction.
Kirkazon Manchurian is an endangered species
Liana Kirkazon Manchurian has the following properties:
- effective anti-inflammatory and antipyretic;
- relieves puffiness, has a gentle diuretic effect;
- relieves pain, promotes early healing of wounds in the oral mucosa;
- has a pronounced sedative effect;
- removes poisons and toxins;
- normalizes heart rate, has an excellent cardiotonic effect;
- promotes milk production in nursing mothers.
Outwardly, Manchurian Kirkazon is used to treat psoriasis, ulcers on mucous membranes, and fungal infections.
Application in traditional medicine
Healers use Manchurian Kirkazon as part of heart preparations with other herbs, make decoctions and infusions. For this, the root of the plant is harvested.
A decoction that relieves inflammation and fever, normalizes digestion and treats myositis:
- Grind 20 g of root;
- pour 1 liter of boiling water;
- keep in a water bath for 10-15 minutes.
Insist for 30 minutes and drain. Keep refrigerated. Drink 200 ml in the morning and in the evening between meals. The duration of the course is individual.
Infusion to improve heart function, stimulate milk flow. You need to take:
- 10 g of crushed raw materials;
- 200 ml of boiling water.
Pour the root with water, wrap tightly with a towel and leave for 1 hour. Drain. Take 50 ml 4 times a day. Treatment period is 30 days.
Attention! Kirkazon Manchurian contains toxic substances. Store raw materials out of the reach of children and pets.
Limitations and contraindications
Kirkazon Manchurian has a number of contraindications:
- period of pregnancy (threat of miscarriage);
- children under the age of 16;
- individual intolerance and allergic reactions to the components of the drug.
Important! When using preparations containing Manchurian Kirkazone, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the recommended dosages. If negative effects appear, stop taking.
Collection and procurement of raw materials
It is necessary to collect Manchurian Kirkazon in early spring, when the plant only wakes up after winter, or in late autumn, at the end of the growing season. It was at this time that the highest content of useful biologically active substances is observed in the roots of the liana. Algorithm of actions:
- gently dig up the roots;
- to clear from the earth;
- rinse thoroughly in ice water;
- cut into thin strips;
- dry at t 45-550 in a special dryer or oven.
Place the finished raw materials in a tightly closed wooden, paper or ceramic container. Store at t = 15-180, without access to sunlight, for 24 months. After this period, the dried root of the tree liana will have to be thrown away - it loses its healing properties.
Liana kirkazon Manchurian, despite the highest decorative and medicinal properties, remains a rare exotic plant for the inhabitants of Russia
The Manchurian Kirkazon is a relict tree liana, whose unique properties have been known since prehistoric times. It is actively used by oriental healers in the treatment of heart and gynecological diseases. The excellent cardiotonic effect of this plant has been confirmed by many years of laboratory research. In addition to unconditional healing properties, Kirkazon is distinguished by its excellent appearance and bright colors of the original form. That is why the tree liana is willingly used in landscape design by flower growers all over the world.