According to the official version, the formation of the Vladimir heavy draft breed began in the middle of the 19th century, at the same time when the other two Russian heavy draft breeds began to form. The main horse breeds that influenced the formation of the Vladimir breed of heavy trucks were the Shire and Klaidesdali. But deeper "excavations" show that the epic horses of the heroes were not such a legend and that they originated in the same area where the Vladimir heavy-harness horses were later bred. By mixing the local heavy-harness breeding stock of Russian horses with Western breeds.
During the Great Migration of peoples from beyond the Urals, tribes of the Ugrians and Finns came to the north of the European continent, bringing with them ordinary Asian horses of the Mongol type. But the phenotype of animals is largely shaped by the habitat. There is a pattern in the living world: the larger the animal, the easier it is to keep warm. This is not a paradox. In a large animal, the percentage of body surface and volume is different from that of a small one. Heat loss occurs through the surface of the body and in a large animal it is proportionally less than in a small one. For this reason, the same species of animals grows larger in colder regions.
A very good example of this adaptability is the wolf. The southernmost subspecies barely reach 15 kg, the northernmost weighs under 90 kg. This adaptive mechanism did not bypass the horses brought by the Finno-Ugric tribes. The horses began to grow larger.
The abundant food supply also contributed to the increase in the size of the horses. Before the emergence of vast forest clearings - a consequence of slash-and-burn agriculture - Asian horses fed in the grass-rich wet floodplains of rivers, switching to forest branch feed in winter.
Although there is no need to talk about the quality of such foals.
The vegetation in the floodplains of rivers is poor in minerals, therefore, although horses grew much larger than their ancestors, the lack of minerals affected the strength of their joints. A quiet life without the need to walk 40 km a day in search of food contributed to the selection of calm and massive horses.
With the development of agriculture, sedentary peoples were able to feed the horses with grain. Such energetic food also affected the size of the horses for the better. The nobility of the Russian principalities formed by that time preferred to select such horses of local breeding. Foals from large northern mares, well fed in the boyar stables, grew about 10 cm taller.
The Battle of Kulikovo changed the balance of power between Russia and the Horde and showed that the Tatar-Mongols can be beaten. But for the final liberation from the conquerors, a lighter and faster horse was required, capable of withstanding the steppe Mongols. And the army began to be transplanted onto nimble and light Spanish and Persian (in fact, Arab and Berberian) horses.
At the time of Peter the Great, horse draft power was required at the Ural development of the Stroganov brothers, and the old Voronezh horses were driven there, choosing all the livestock without a trace. But Russian draft horses held out in the Urals only for 2 centuries. From there they were replaced by scientific and technological progress. The horses were replaced by steam locomotives.
But the same NTP helped Russian heavy horses survive. There were no tractors yet and plowed on horses, and the growth of cities required an increase in agricultural production. Cities needed products, it was necessary to plow and sow new areas. The small, weak horses that remained in Vladimirsky Opolye were not able to cope with heavy loamy soils. And powerful horses pulled from the Urals back to their historical homeland. To speed up the restoration of the population of heavy-harness Russian horses, the returned mares were crossed with imported heavy-draft breeds.
But this time the Russian breed failed to gain a foothold in its homeland. The First World War also required a powerful pulling force to move the cannons. During this war, the population of the original Vladimir horses was practically knocked out.
But the young Land of the Soviets also had to plow on someone and feed the population. Therefore, the zootechnicians were tasked with restoring the former breed of the Vladimir horse. The pitiful remnants of powerful boyar horses and bitugs (the second Russian heavy draft horse breed) were collected at Vladimirsky Opolye and divided into two groups. In one group, mares were crossed with the Clydesdals and Shire, in the other with the Brabancons.
In 1946, the Shire and Clydesdale blood group was officially registered as a horse breed, the Vladimir Heavy Draft. From this moment, the modern history of the Vladimir heavy truck begins.
Work with the Shires and Clydesdals, which were mixed with local heavy horses, was carried out on collective and state farms in Ivanovo and Vladimir regions. Under Gavrilovo-Posad, a state stable and a state pedigree nursery were created, the breeding material of which was used on other pedigree farms. In 1959, on the basis of the Gavrilovo-Posad pedigree nursery, the elite Gavrilovo-Posad stud farm was formed for breeding the Vladimir horse breed. The second such stud farm was founded in Yuryev-Polsky.
Yuryev-Polsky stud farm was created practically from scratch. It is difficult to consider the simple wooden stables, which previously belonged to the Ivanovo Agricultural Institute, as the developed infrastructure of an elite stud farm. The stock of horses for the plant was also selected from various farms in the Vladimir region.
In 2013, the Gavrilovo-Posad stud farm was liquidated, transferring the breeding core of the Vladimir breed to another farm. Yuryev-Polsky Plant continues to function, but has changed its status and name. Today it is PKZ "Monastyrskoe Podvorie". There are several other horse farms, where today they continue to breed the Vladimir heavy truck.
During the existence of the Soviet Union, the Vladimir heavy trucks served as good improvers for the local state and collective farm livestock of working horses.
The greatest influence on the modern Vladimir breed of heavy trucks was exerted by the Klaidesdale. Shires were used initially and mainly on the maternal side. The influence of the Clydesdale is noticeable today in the longer legs of the Vladimir Heavy Draft compared to other heavy-duty breeds. It is enough to compare the photo of the modern Vladimir heavy truck with the photo of the modern Clydesdal.
Vladimir heavy truck.
Horse of the Clydesdal breed.
But in the old photos of horses of the breed, the Vladimir heavy draft horse sometimes still "peeps through" a shorter-legged and massive Shire.
These breeds of heavy harness horses are so close to each other that earlier some English breeders considered them one breed and, without hesitation, crossed Shires with Clydesdals among themselves. Today, the differences between these breeds are more pronounced.
From the Clydesdals, the Vladimir heavy trucks inherited a bay suit and some disadvantages:
- shallow chest;
- soft back;
- flat ribs.
Most likely, both English breeds of heavy trucks are "responsible" for the thick overgrowth of the legs.
In addition to the bay, the Vladimir breed of heavy trucks has black and red suits. The black suit with a high degree of probability is the legacy of the Shires. A recessive red color is present in all horse breeds in the world.
Important! One of the breed signs of the Vladimir Heavy Draft is large white markings on the legs and head.
These marks of the Vladimir heavy horse breed were inherited from the Clydesdals.
The Vladimir breed received its advantages from the local livestock of heavy-harness horses. The Vladimir heavy trucks are distinguished by their high efficiency and good adaptability to northern climatic conditions.
The growth of Vladimir stallions is on average 165 at the withers, although there are also significantly taller horses. Oblique body length 173 cm, chest girth 207 cm. Pastern girth 24.5 cm.Weight 758 kg.
The Vladimir mares have a height of 163 cm, an oblique length - 170 cm, a chest girth - 198 cm, a cannon girth - 23.5 cm.Weight 685 kg.
The head is long, with a slightly convex profile, large in size. The neck is well muscled, long, with a high set. High withers. The chest is wide, but may not be deep enough. The shoulder blade is well sloped. Long, slightly straight shoulder. The back is wide, sometimes a little soft. The loin is short. The croup is long, slightly drooping. It can also be with a normal slope. In working condition, the croup should be bifurcated. This is achieved not by excessive feeding, but by pumping up muscles during work. Legs are long and dry. Due to the thick brushes, there may be a tendency to biting midges (fungal disease under the fetlock joint).
The horses are energetic, but with a stable nervous system. The movements are free, sweeping.
Due to its versatility, the Vladimirsky heavy truck is suitable for almost all areas of activity for an amateur. And the calm nature allows one and the same horse to be used both under the saddle and in harness. They are even able to portray real knightly horses in reenactment games. In the photo, a horse of the Vladimirsky heavy draft breed is jumping a low obstacle.
Having previously drilled through the soil.
And he also depicts a medieval war horse.
And in the video, the result of an independent ride by the owner of a three-year-old Vladimirsky heavy truck in a sleigh. The video clearly shows how accommodating these giants are.
Roman Bezrodny, p. Snail
We took the Vladimir heavy truck in "our" stud farm. The horse is actually very good. Before that, I held a Soviet heavy truck. Here you go and do not know whether you will fall asleep, or you will reach. Goes, but not in a hurry. And Vladimirsky is glad to run at a trot. The horse is in fact both under the saddle and in the cart. I bought a horse plow, and now I plow gardens for my neighbors. And for a heavy truck only to stretch the muscles in joy. For him, these gardens are not work. Children ride on it. Under the saddle, the Vladimir heavy draft truck willingly gallops, and can jump on a log in the forest. The main thing is that he does not jump on these logs with a cart.
Radmila Guseva, s. Middle Urgal
I have always dreamed of getting a heavy-harness horse, but it was only recently. We bought a heavy truck of the Vladimir breed from a local plant. The horse turned out to be just wonderful. With its size, it will never push, it will not come. We bought a 2-year-old foal and thought that it would be very difficult to call him. And at the age of three they harnessed the cart and the horse went, as if from birth he had been dragging carts along with him.
In Russia, today, perhaps, this is the only breed of heavy-harness horses that is not on the verge of extinction. Vladimirtsy are especially popular in the northern regions of the country, where people have long loved powerful draft horses. Lovers of horseback riding in the fields are also willing to buy Vladimirtsev. Thanks to its calm character and strong nervous system, the Vladimir Draft Truck is a reliable horse for trips to forests and fields.