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Cherry diseases with photos and treatment should be studied by every gardener interested in growing a strong and healthy tree. There are many ailments that afflict culture, but almost all of them can be successfully combated.
Description of cherry diseases with photos
Most often, cherries in the garden suffer from fungal diseases, especially often they develop if the tree grows in unsuitable soils and does not receive proper care. Symptoms of diseases can be similar, and in order to protect the plant, it is necessary to study cherry diseases with photos and treatment.
One of the most common diseases for cherries is coccomycosis fungus. You can notice the appearance of the disease by the dark red, and then brown spots on the leaves. Holes soon appear in the spots of the spots, from below the leaf plates are covered with a dark bloom and begin to fall off. Launched coccomycosis can lead to the death of the fruit plant, since it deprives it of vitality.
Coccomycosis leads to massive loss of foliage
A fungal disease dangerous for cherries is anthracnose that affects ripening fruits. First, light small areas appear on the cherry berries, quickly growing into dense tubercles, covered with a pink bloom. Then the fruits begin to dry out and completely die in a short period of time.
Anthracnose can completely destroy the crop
Anthracnose is especially dangerous for the fruit plant in dry and hot weather. The disease usually appears in neglected orchards, where the fallen berries remain on the ground and become a breeding ground for fungal spores. If left untreated, the fungus can lead to the loss of the entire crop.
Fungal disease, which is also called brown spot, manifests itself as yellow-brown spots on cherry leaves and ocher-brown spots on its bark. Over time, overwintering spores of the fungus form in the affected tissues, they look like small black dots.
Phylostictosis is dangerous by premature leaf fall of a fruit tree
When phyllostictosis is affected, the bark of the fruit plant is deformed and dries up, and the leaves turn yellow and begin to fall off. At the same time, the spores of the fungus remain in the fallen leaves, therefore, during the treatment, it is especially important to remove and burn all the fallen leaves.
Moniliosis is another very common and dangerous cherry tree disease that affects the green parts and flowers. The most striking symptom of moniliosis is wilting and drying of flowers and young shoots. With moniliosis, gray spots appear on the bark of cherries, gum appears, the fruits rot and fall off prematurely.
With moniliosis, the plant looks withered and as if burned out.
Important! Since a diseased cherry often looks like a burnt one, moniliosis is also called a monilial burn.
A disease called perforated spotting, or klyasternosporiosis, most often develops in cherries in warm regions with high humidity. Spores of a fungal disease choose young annual shoots for wintering, after which, together with pests and wind, they spread to the entire tree.
Clasterosporium disease leads to profuse holes in the leaf plates
The symptoms of clasterosporium disease are red spots with a raspberry border that appear on young leaves. Small at first, the spots quickly increase in diameter, and then turn brown and brown. The leaves dry out in the spots, and the dead tissue falls out, leaving holes behind. Clasterosporiosis harms cherries, as it can lead to the complete death of the green mass and stop the development of the plant.
The scab fungus on cherries is characterized by brown-green and bright yellow spots that appear on the leaves in the spring with the onset of warmth. Over time, the spots, as with many other diseases, dry out, the affected leaves crack and fall off. The scab also affects the bark and fruits.
Scab negatively affects both foliage and bark of shoots and fruits
Since the scab-causing fungus hibernates in fallen leaves, it is important to clean the garden on time to prevent it. If untreated, scab can seriously affect the volume of the harvest - cherries will give half the fruit, and their quality will be low.
A dangerous disease for cherries is rust - a parasitic fungus that hibernates in fallen leaves and spreads throughout the plant with the onset of heat. You can recognize rust by the appearance of characteristic bumps and spots on cherry leaves - bright red with orange or yellow edging. Outwardly, these spots are very reminiscent of uneven rust, which is the reason for the name of the disease.
If left untreated, rust will quickly spread through the wood. The foliage affected by the disease will quickly crumble, which will negatively affect not only the harvest, but also the health of the cherry in general.
Rust is easily recognizable by its characteristic reddish spots.
Most often, a disease called powdery mildew develops in warm and humid regions, on nitrogenous soils and in a thickened orchard. The fungus is transferred with precipitation, wind and insect pests, and you can notice the symptoms of cherry disease already in late May or early June.
A characteristic feature of powdery mildew is the white spots on the leaves and fruits of the cherry, producing dusty spores that look like flour. The disease usually spreads from the bottom of the plant upward, affecting not only the leaves, but also flowers and ovaries.
Powdery mildew on the fruit looks like a white bloom
The disease is dangerous for cherries in that it reduces the volume of fruiting and worsens the quality of the fruit. For the prevention of the disease, it is recommended to monitor the level of soil moisture and thin out the branches in time to ensure good air circulation.
In the video of cherry diseases, you can often see gommosis, which is also called gum disease. As it is easy to understand, the ailment mainly affects the trunk of the cherry. Gum is abundantly released from cracks in the bark, which then hardens and hardens, acquiring an amber-yellow color. According to its composition, gum is a product of the breakdown of cells and tissues, therefore, its appearance indicates serious negative processes.
The flow of gum weakens the strength of the plant
Hommosis usually develops against the background of external damage - cuts on the bark and broken branches. It can also be provoked by violations in the rules of cultivation - for example, waterlogged soil. Some cherry pests cause gum removal.
It is necessary to fight the disease of the cherry trunk, since infections and bacteria penetrate into the wounds on the bark, which can lead to the death of the plant. Treatment consists primarily in the fact that the gum is carefully cut to healthy wood, and then the wounds on the trunk and branches are carefully treated with garden pitch or copper sulfate.
Lichens and mosses
On old cherries or on young trees growing in high humidity conditions, mosses and lichens can often be seen abundantly covering the trunk and branches. They are not a symptom of fungal diseases and do not pose a direct danger to cherries, but they still serve as an alarm signal.
Lichens are not dangerous in themselves, but indicate an unhealthy plant.
Since mosses and lichens need nutrients to grow, they inevitably take them away from the cherry itself. This leads to a decrease in yield, to the weakening and death of individual branches. Despite the fact that mossy cherries can continue to grow in the garden for a long time, the number of their fruits will be greatly reduced.
Attention! The appearance of mosses and lichens on cherries indicates serious violations in agricultural technology. Most likely, the tree grows in conditions of constant waterlogging and, moreover, is strongly thickened.
Among the diseases of cherries with a description and a photo, you can find a dangerous ailment - bacterial cancer, or bacteriosis. If treatment is not started on time, the tree can die very quickly.
Bacteriosis can be recognized by its characteristic symptoms. In the presence of the disease, pale yellow spots appear on the leaves of the cherry, which quickly turn brown, and the flowers also turn brown. Over time, through holes begin to appear in the leaves, and the trunk and branches become covered with cracks and growths, emitting a thick orange liquid. Cherry, infected with bacteriosis, bears little fruit, and those that ripen quickly become covered with dark spots and begin to rot.
Bacteriosis can quickly destroy a garden tree
Most often, the disease develops in cherries against the background of waterlogging in a warm climate. It is important to start treatment at the very first stages, before the bacteriosis has had time to seriously affect the plant.
How to treat cherries for diseases
Treatment of any of the listed diseases is a whole range of measures to restore the health of cherries:
- When the first alarming symptoms appear, treatment should be started immediately. If spots appeared on the shoots and leaves, and the bark began to dry and crack, then there is no point in waiting for the disease to pass on its own, over time it will only develop.
- For treatment purposes, it is necessary first of all to remove all affected parts of the cherry. Most often it is impossible to save them, but fungal spores and infection can spread to healthy tissues. Sick shoots are not just cut off, they must be carefully collected from the ground, taken out of the site and burned.
- To destroy fungal spores and infections, fungicidal solutions are used, such as Bordeaux mixture, HOM or Nitrafen, as well as Horus and Skor. When treating a disease, it is important not only to thoroughly spray the cherry, but also to shed soil at its roots, in which a pathogenic fungus can also remain. You need to repeat the treatment several times per season: in early spring, in the period after flowering and in late autumn, shortly before wintering.
- After cherry treatment, special attention should be paid to autumn preventive measures. Before preparing for winter, it is necessary to inspect the cherry again, if necessary, remove the weakened and dead branches, and destroy the plant debris at its roots. In this case, fungal spores will not be able to overwinter in fallen leaves and dead tissues, and in the spring the disease will not spread again.
Fungicide treatment is usually carried out three times per season.
If the cherry growing on the site brings many problems to growing and is often sick, you need to pay close attention to the growing conditions. Most often, fungal diseases are provoked by insufficiently thorough sanitary cleaning of the garden, but, in addition, ailments can appear due to swampy soil. Diseases develop more actively with an excessively thickened crown of the plant, therefore, to maintain the health of the cherry, it is recommended to cut it off regularly.
Advice! Since fungal spores are often carried by pests, fungicidal treatments can be combined with insecticide spraying.
Description of cherry pests with photos
It's not just fungi that pose a threat to cherry trees. Pests can also damage the health of cherries and reduce their productivity, so the gardener should study the photos of cherry pests and the fight against them.
Cherry aphids most often appear on young leaves in late spring. Externally, the pest is a small insect with a green or black color, aphids are located mainly on the underside of the leaves. The pest is dangerous for cherries in that it feeds on the juices of its leaves and can almost completely destroy the green crown.
Aphids are a common and very unpleasant parasite
Among the photos and descriptions of pests on cherries, there is a weevil; in adulthood, it is a green beetle with a bronze and reddish tint of the body. The larvae of the pest hibernate in the soil near the cherry trunk and wake up in early spring, after which they move to the trunk and shoots.
The cherry weevil feeds on plant juices during the period of bud swelling, and is especially dangerous during the ovary of fruits. The pest gnaws holes in the developing berries and lays eggs in them, from which larvae develop rapidly, feeding on the pulp and juices of the fruit. By the time of harvest, the cherry weevil leaves the cherry fruits and goes back into the soil, and the berries affected by the pest fall off, thus, the crop is damaged.
Cherry weevil spoils ripe fruits
Among the pests of cherries, the cherry slimy sawfly is dangerous; it mainly affects the green mass. An adult insect has a shiny black body up to 6 mm long and two pairs of transparent wings up to 9 cm in span. The cherry sawfly larva reaches a length of about 10 mm, greenish-yellow in appearance and covered with black mucus.
A slimy sawfly hibernates in the soil under the trunk of a cherry tree. In the spring, the pest pupates, and in the middle of summer, the pupae turn into adult insects and lay eggs on the underside of cherry leaves. The larvae of the pest begin to eat the pulp of the foliage, and the green crown dries up and falls off.
Cherry sawfly weakens the plant and reduces yield
The cherry fly, dangerous for the fruit tree, lays eggs in developing fruits, gnawing small holes in them. Subsequently, larvae of the pest appear from the clutch, which feed on the juices of the fruits until the very beginning of autumn. Although damage by cherry fly does not lead to the death of cherries, the pest causes significant damage to the crop. The berries become unusable and fall off prematurely.
Premature shedding of berries is often caused by the cherry fly
Cherry pests are ants, which are often attracted by the aromatic sweet smell of ripening fruits. Insects eat the ripening cherries and spoil the harvest, so they must be disposed of. Another danger of pests is that they act as carriers of aphids, with their appearance on the cherry another, much more dangerous pest can settle.
Ants are nowhere near as harmless as they seem
The garden pest spider mite most often infects cherries in dry weather and subject to a lack of moisture. The adult pest is a small green, red or yellow insect with four pairs of limbs, and the eggs of the tick are orange-red, so they can be quickly found on branches and shoots.
Spider mites appear on cherries mainly after flowering. You can recognize it by the following signs - red, silver or yellow small spots, white specks on the underside of leaves or white arachnoid membranes between leaves and stems. The last sign indicates a serious and large-scale defeat by the pest.
The presence of a distinguishable cobweb on the foliage indicates a serious tick infestation
The pest is dangerous because in the process of vital activity its larvae can seriously damage the green mass of the plant and draw out the vital juices from the cherry. It should be noted that simple spraying of cherries with water in drought and moderate watering is a good prevention of a tick - the pest does not tolerate an increase in humidity.
How to deal with pests on cherries
Cherry tree pests damage the crop and generally weaken the fruit plant. Therefore, it is necessary to treat pests at an early stage.You can list the following measures aimed at getting rid of insects:
- With the beginning of spring, cherries need to be regularly inspected and checked for the condition of their leaves, shoots and ovaries. In the initial stages, pest infestation may not be conspicuous, but with due attention, the eggs and larvae of harmful insects on the leaves and bark are not difficult to notice.
- For minor pests, you can use a regular soapy solution for treatment. Natural laundry soap is diluted in warm water in a ratio of 100 g per 1 liter of liquid, and then the crown of the plant is abundantly sprayed in the morning or after sunset.
- In case of serious pest infestation, the fruit plant can be treated with insecticidal solutions, such as Karbofos, Fufanon and Kemifos. Mild chemicals can help eliminate even large populations of aphids and ticks.
It is recommended to treat cherries from pests several times per season. Since some pests have time to lay eggs several times over the summer, re-treatment increases the effectiveness of the treatment. It should be remembered that spraying with insecticides should be carried out no later than 3-4 weeks before harvest, otherwise chemicals can penetrate into the tissues of the fruit.
During the preparation of the fruit plant for winter, you need to remove all fallen leaves from the trunk circle and dig up the soil. Many pests hibernate in plant remains or the upper layer of the earth, therefore, cherry trees can again attack on a neglected area with the onset of spring.
The most effective way to control parasites is with insecticide treatment
Cherry protection measures from pests and diseases
Diseases of cherries in the Moscow region and their treatment can be associated with great difficulties. Therefore, it is best to prevent the development of diseases with the help of preventive protective measures:
- When growing a fruit plant, it is necessary to follow the correct agricultural techniques. Drying or waterlogging of the soil should not be allowed; from time to time, the crown of the tree should be thinned to avoid excessive thickening.
- Most often, fungi develop in fallen leaves near cherries and on the remains of shoots and peeled berries. To prevent diseases of the fruit tree and the appearance of pests, every year it is necessary to remove from the site and burn the plant debris that remains under the tree trunk in the fall.
- Regular sanitary pruning plays an important role in disease prevention. Dry, broken and weakened branches must be removed promptly. At the same time, any damage to the bark of a fruit tree is covered with garden varnish or copper sulfate, if the wounds are left open, then infections and fungal spores can enter the cherry tissue through them.
- It is possible to carry out treatment with fungicidal and insecticidal preparations not only for the treatment of ailments and pests, but also for the purpose of prevention. Usually cherries are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid, Skor or Horus shortly before flowering, after it and a few weeks before harvest.
To maintain the health of cherries, you should annually feed the plant with potassium and phosphorus - mineral fertilizers increase the endurance of the fruit tree.
Advice! So that cherry diseases and the fight against them do not bring much trouble, for planting in the country it is better to choose hardy zoned varieties with increased resistance to ailments and insects.
Competent care allows, in principle, to prevent most ailments.
Resistant cherry varieties for the Moscow region and other regions
Among dozens of cherry varieties, gardeners are especially attracted by those that have increased resistance to pests and ailments. There are several well-known varieties that are distinguished by good hardiness.
In memory of Vavilov
The variety has an average winter hardiness and is not recommended for cultivation in the northern regions. But in the conditions of the Moscow region and the middle lane, the variety develops very well. The fruit plant is resistant to coccomycosis and is little affected by moniliosis, although the latter poses a certain danger to it.
The cherry variety has increased cold resistance and adapts well both in the middle lane and in Siberia. The fruit tree is resistant to monilial burn and rarely suffers from coccomycosis, which simplifies the growing process.
For growing in the Moscow region, the Malinovka variety is well suited. The tree hibernates well, but often suffers from recurrent frosts, so it is not suitable for the northern regions. The variety is highly resistant to most fungal diseases and, with proper care, does not suffer from fungi and pests.
Cherries are recommended for cultivation in the Central Region and rarely suffer from coccomycosis, monilial burn and other fungal ailments. The yield of the variety is relatively low, but it almost does not bring problems when growing.
Diseases of cherries with photos and treatment allow you to recognize fungal ailments of the fruit tree in time or notice signs of pest damage. Although diseases and harmful insects pose a serious danger to cherries, it is not so difficult to cope with them when treatment is started on time.