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The history of curtains goes back to those times when there were no windows or even houses in our understanding. The skin hung the entrance to the cave, yaranga and similar dwelling. In the regions of the Far North, leather still plays such a role, and in antiquity, when there was no glazing at the windows, the hide on the window was replaced by textile products - naturally, for people with high incomes: before the mass production of industrial looms, the fabric was expensive.
Types of Curtains
Since then, a lot of time has passed, and a similar function for curtains has faded into the background, if there is any (after all, houses have become more energy-efficient), and the main purposes of curtains have become:
- regulation of illumination in the room during the day;
- window decoration;
- fencing of the privacy zone from outsiders (relevant for residents of the first floors).
It should be noted that it is not customary to hang windows. So, in the DPRK there is a legislative ban on this, and in the Scandinavian countries the maximum that they hang on the windows is tulle. This is a consequence of a culture of openness.
In these countries, there are no high fences typical of Russian individual houses.
Be that as it may, the curtains fit into our interior firmly, and to date, there are many of their varieties and classifications
Depending on how the window curtain is opened and closed, there is such a classification:
- Sliding - move apart from the middle;
- Roman - are pulled up;
- Austrian - double-row, can open the window in both the first and second ways;
- Shutter role - rolls into a roll;
- Vertical blinds;
- A cloth with cuts (in Japan, this is called noren).
To make it clear, we’ll tell you how certain types of curtains were called in the USSR in everyday life, since in everyday communication we often hear these names:
- Tulle - a transparent or translucent fabric, sometimes lace, located closer to the window;
- Curtain - any fabric that can close the entire window and be single (as we recall, in the USSR windows were usually closed in two layers). It can be both a tulle and a curtain;
- Portiere - a heavy curtain of opaque fabric;
- Curtain - the general name of curtains or a product from inexpensive fabrics in utilitarian premises - kitchens, baths, and bathrooms.
Errors in choosing
At present, the ambiguity of all these names is caused by a huge selection of both fabrics and design styles of window openings. There are a lot of offers from fabric stores and designers, sometimes it’s hard to figure it out, and sometimes people, choosing curtains, are guided by false settings, for example:
- "I want, as in a magazine";
- "now we are rich, can be done as in a palace";
- "expensive means good."
At the same time, few people think not only about the integrity of the design of the entire room, but even about simple functionality. Sometimes it even seems that it would be better if people did not think about difficult decisions: for such citizens, curtains for summer cottages, which were sewn according to the residual principle, fit into the interior of the summer cottage much better than the pathos curtains in their living room. At home, we get at least strange decisions, which we now briefly mention.
An abundance of decor that does not match the style of the room
Of course, I want the room to have a bright spot, but in this case it is not a spot, but a spot. Furniture, wallpaper, floor can be quite calmly maintained, and the window has countless brushes, frills and other signs of glamor. One gets the impression that the owners bought it in the store because it appeared there.
Often in such cases, the choice of fabric is due to the fact that she liked the store on a shelf or stand, and not the color scheme of the room.
The choice of design does not match the size of the room
There are solutions that are limited by ceiling height and span. So, a sliding curtain, no matter how beautiful, looks like a rag on the windows in large halls. But in Khrushchev, the French look like festoons in the same ridiculous way, especially if it is made of thick shiny fabric. Previously, large windows in assembly halls were thus curtained; Now citizens have access to making the same for the home.
In general, the fashion for such design decisions came a little later than the notorious arches from Santa Barbara.
There are fabrics that "work" only at high altitudes; they do not exist in residential premises. With a ceiling of 2.50, they will not sag with beautiful folds; they will look "wooden".
When choosing the fabric did not take into account the function of the room and operating conditions
This usually refers to the kitchen, which instead of light, well-laundered fabrics acquired a palace version.
But there are also reverse options in which the curtains do not fulfill their role in regulating the illumination in the room. This is especially true for rooms facing the sunny side.
Hope for outsiders
For some reason, it has become customary to believe that any business should be done by a professional. We will not dispute this, but the professional will work according to a clearly formulated task.
Many people approach curtains as well as repair in a house (often this is done simultaneously). That is, they order tailoring of curtains in the workshop. This is quite normal, but on condition that you know exactly what you want. But in practice it turns out that cloth, materials, the width of the window and room, the height of the ceiling and a description of the type are given in to the workshop: "I need a lambrequin like this and the tassels hang here."
In fact, a workshop can only guarantee you time and quality, but it cannot replace your taste. So it turns out that in the apartments of citizens who did not have the money to repair their own hands and sewing curtains in the workshop, what one blogger succinctly called agro-glamor reigns supreme.
Against their background, apartments of less affluent citizens look at least not vulgar.
Style solutions for curtains
Now we will introduce you some ways to design window openings. Do not forget that the window should be designed in the same style with the whole room. We will mention some details of the cut and types of cornices.
Pretty versatile style, and the main thing here is not to overdo it. The curtains in the classic room are monochrome, to the tone of either the walls or furniture. It is also advisable to purchase a tulle without a pattern. Technically, the best option is simple curtains, which in the daytime can be fixed at the edge of the window. Avoid excess decor in the form of brushes and fringe, as well as lambrequins, if the ceiling height does not allow. If he will be present, then in a small version and from the main material of the curtains. Soft or hard - it does not matter.
The basic rule in this case will be to maintain the proportions of the room.
Let's be honest: this style is not suitable for housingI. But it is precisely here that all the excesses that our citizens are so greedy for are pertinent. Here are complex lambrequins, and brushes, and fringe, and gilding, and various captures, and a curved cut. Structurally, curtains can be both classic and Roman. Festoons also work well.
The color is still one, but combinations are allowed, as well as a more "expensive" texture - taffeta, gilding, etc.
I just want to warn: follow the color scheme, otherwise your interior will not resemble palaces, but a gypsy house.
The style arose as an imitation of antiquity, in which the art of drapery existed.. In general, the cut of the curtains coincides with the classical one, but in order for you to have the correct folds, you will have to choose light soft fabrics and a curtain rod with clips (rather than hooks) or eyelets. The latter is best covered with a decorative bar.
No lambrequins and brushes. Drapes in the entire height of the window, preferably even more. The tulle can be with a plain floral pattern, also Japanese curtains look good instead in the form of straight canvases without folds. Draperies are best to choose plain and without shine. Of all types of cornices, the most successful will be the ceiling.
This style is distinguished by an abundance of floral decor from wood and stained-glass windows.. It is not very designed for window decoration with textiles, but if the decor is restrained, the window opening can perfectly complement light curtains with floral ornaments, as well as a combination of a veil with a hard lambrequin, on which the ornament repeating the details of the interior will look good.
In the same way, curtains do not fit well in such directions as constructivism, hi-tech and minimalism, but simple curtains without an ornament or with a purely geometric pattern (stripes, for example) can fit well into the interior of such an apartment.
National (ethnic) styles in the interior
In its pure form, none of the classical trends in architecture and design is not found. In any case, if we talk about housing. Most people in the world are descendants of immigrants from the village, and there is nothing wrong with it: on the contrary, each people has its own traditions of arts and crafts, its own ideas about beauty, and all this is reflected in the housing of a modern city dweller.
Interestingly, the influence of these styles can be traced more in the kitchen, while the Russians prefer to design the rooms in a more "journalistic" way. However, in other countries, everything is also not so clear.
Recently, various receptions that used to be characteristic of the interiors of one country have crossed borders, and rustic-style curtains have begun to appear even more in living rooms. We will mention several directions of the rustic style here..
It is above all provence. This style is characterized by the use of natural materials - wooden furniture with an aged texture, upholstery made of linen and cotton, and all this is sustained in bright colors. Curtains are no exception - they are either plain monochromatic or with a vegetable fine pattern.
All kinds of captures from the same material are welcome, allowing you to open windows, various ruffles - in short, this is a very warm home interior. An ideal option for fabrics for curtains here would be calico or calico, but, unfortunately, they are more often produced for bedding.
Country - in something similar style. But there are some nuances here: for example, if Provence as a whole is the aesthetics of stone, then country is wood. Floral ornamentation is rare here, but the cell and strip live here. Country curtains are cotton and linen with a checkered or striped pattern.
It should be noted that the border between these areas in design outside their homeland is very blurred, so sometimes both are simply called a rustic style.
Different from them scandinavian housing. As we said earlier, the inhabitants of the northern countries do not like to close the windows - in winter there is little light, and in general, they do not like to hide. Nevertheless, simple translucent curtains in their motion. As a rule, this is either tulle or a translucent white fabric that hangs in one row. It is closed only at night by residents of the first floors. Sometimes it is a Roman curtain that is collected all day above the window. In general, the Scandinavian interiors are very minimalistic.
Japanese the style is most different from its ethnic counterparts. It is distinguished primarily by its strict functionality - not a single object will stand there just like that - and geometry. And it’s very simple. An exception may be an ornament on the curtains - either simple geometric or single floral motifs (blooming sakura, lotus). By the way, they are special. Japanese curtains do not tolerate folds and are narrow, about 50 cm wide, strips of fabric, plain or color, with a direct weighting bottom. There can be several on one window, and they slide apart along the ledge like blinds. The mount for them, by the way, is also special.
Chasing foreign ones, we completely forgot that Russia has its own traditions, and modern agro-glamor has nothing to do with them.
This is a residential part of the Ekimova hut in the Museum of Wooden Architecture Vitoslavlitsy, which is near Veliky Novgorod.
The curtains in the hut were not large, and the windows themselves were small. Most often, these were homespun things, with no frills. Served as material, cotton (factory fabric) has spread since the end of the 19th century. The home textiles of the Russian hut are, first of all, homespun bleached and unbleached linen, patchwork quilts (what we call the fashionable word patchwork), red embroidered towels. In summer, the windows were decorated with small light curtains; in richer houses, they also had some decor.
This decoration did not receive its development - moving to the city, people lost this culture, but could develop it. So, flax in all variants, Vologda lace could serve as a material for curtains, but, unfortunately, these directions do not develop and few people give out any design ideas on this basis.
A cheap curtain fabric made of polyester could replace lace, but the material from which it is made makes it unpleasant to use (it turns yellow and creates the feeling of plastic on the window): it would be much better if it were made from natural materials.
In the meantime, natural curtains are used in utilitarian rooms - for example, curtains in the bathhouse and for summer cottages most often represent the same rustic style.
Do it yourself
If you figure out what your curtains will be, you can sew them yourself. Of course, giving a master class on each type of curtain is silly: there are a great many of them, and each can be dedicated to a separate article. But you can give general recommendations, because if you are going to sew yourself, you are interested in how to sew beautiful curtains, and not just “cut” the fabric.
Calculation of the amount of fabric and pattern
To determine how much fabric you need to buy, you need to know the width of the cornice and the build factor, that is, what folds you need. Usually this ratio does not exceed 1.5-2, but if you like heavily assembled curtains, multiply by 2.5. Simply put, if your curtain rod is 3 meters, then you will need from 4.5 to 7.7 meters curtains. The exception is Japanese curtains - they are straight, Roman - they are going up and those cases when you do not plan to close the window completely, and the curtains perform only the framing function. In this case, you will need the length of the cornice where they will hang.
The height of the curtains is calculated as the difference between the floor and the cornice, then you should add or subtract the length to this if you decide to make the curtain shorter or longer (so that it lies on the floor). Be sure to give an allowance for the seams, at least 2 cm from the bottom and at least 5 from the top. From above it is better to leave more if you fasten the curtain to the eyelets - in this case, the top of the curtain will be higher than the cornice; or sew on a curtain tape. On the contrary, if you hang the curtain on loops of the same material (on the curtain rod), you do not need a large allowance.
The size of the Roman curtains is considered from the cornice to the bottom of the window, to this you need to add allowances for the seams, on the slats, and buy the same amount of lining fabric.
The horizontal curtain assembly factor of French is 1.5, and the vertical average of 2.5.
On the same principle, calculate the cost of a lambrequin, if you have one. You can find patterns of different types of the latter on the net.
Now count how many meters of the perimeter you have to process, multiply this number by 2 and add another coil (just in case).
The number of additional fittings can be calculated based on the type of fastening and the technology of casing.So, if you have a hard lambrequin, you need to purchase doubler (this is such a hard lining for collars).
The pattern of curtains with an oblique cut is carried out in expanded form, so the space in the apartment should be enough for a cut.
Follow these steps.:
- Before you start to sew your curtains, make sure that you have correctly set the thread tension. What is not critical when sewing small things can go sideways in the manufacture of large ones. So, the tightened edge of the curtain will be ugly ugly (this is called a drawdown), and no gravity of the material will correct this. To avoid this, first make a test on the scraps and adjust the tension until the seam is straight and the fabric stops sagging.
- If your curtains are made of loose material, do not worry: it is better to sheathe them on an overlock before further work.
- The filing of the edges of curtains from thin materials (veil, organza) does not look aesthetically pleasing from the side, so use a slanting trim.
- When sewing lambrequins, French curtains and complex decor elements, do not neglect the manual marking of details, otherwise the seam may lead. Since in some cases the tissues behave differently, it is worth trying on at this stage - in a horizontal position you will not see all the nuances, for example, swag:
- Change needles more often on a typewriter. A dull needle tends to tighten a thread of fabric if it gets in the way.
Finally, if you want your work not to be in vain, do not forget to properly care for the curtains.