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Japanese irises: varieties with photos and names

Japanese irises: varieties with photos and names


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Iris (iris) is a perennial plant that is widespread in almost all continents. The genus consists of about 800 species, with all kinds of flower shades. Japanese irises came to the gardens of Russia from Central Asia. The culture is widely used in ornamental gardening and landscape design.

Description of Japanese irises

In Japanese culture, irises are an indicator of stamina and endurance - those qualities that a samurai should have, "iris" and "warrior spirit" in the language of this country are spelled the same. In Japan, there is a ritual festival where boys contemplate irises. The plant received such recognition for the shape of the leaves, reminiscent of a samurai sword and unpretentiousness to growing conditions.

Irises of this species are common in Japan, China, Myanmar. They grow in wetlands and forest edges, along river banks, in meadows. They tolerate well both waterlogged soils and moisture deficit.

Characteristics of Japanese irises:

  1. The form of the culture is a herbaceous shrub with upright stems, simple or branched, ending in flowers. Height - 50-100 cm, depending on the variety.
  2. Root system with a central core and creeping processes, giving numerous basal shoots.
  3. The leaves are xiphoid with pointed tops, their length is 60 cm, width - 3 cm. Flat, without veins, dark green, with a glossy surface. The main location is at the bottom of the stem.
  4. The flowers of the Japanese iris are large, up to 6 cm in diameter, located in 2-4 pieces on the tops of the peduncles. The lower petals are curved, rounded, the central ones are narrow in the form of an ellipse with wavy or jagged edges. Painted in all shades of blue or lilac.
  5. The fruit is a capsule with dark brown seeds. The flowering period depends on the iris variety, mainly in the second half of summer.

Flowers are odorless, life cycle is 5 days.

Important! Japanese iris is a culture of the subtropical zone, characterized by an average frost resistance.

Varieties of Japanese irises

In ornamental gardening, cultivars of a perennial plant are used, all of them are characterized by large flowers with a two-tiered non-standard shape, as well as various colors of perianths and inner petals forming a dome. Varieties of Japanese irises with a name and a photo will allow you to choose your favorite crop for further breeding.

Vasily Alferov

Variety Vasili Alfiorov is the result of Russian selection. The originator of the variety is G. Rodionenko. The culture is named after Academician Alferov, the founder of the collection of Japanese irises created in post-revolutionary Russia.

External characteristic:

  • height - 1 m;
  • the bush is dense, 3-4 buds are formed on one stem;
  • the diameter of the flowers is 25 cm, the color is dark purple with yellow fragments at the base of the perianth, the surface of the petals is velvety;
  • blooms at the end of June, the duration of the period is 3 weeks.

Does not tolerate dry alkaline soil. The culture is light-loving.

Variety Vasily Alferov is the leader in frost resistance among other Japanese irises

Suitable for cultivation in the Central zone and in the southern regions.

Variegata

The variety of Japanese irises Variegata is medium-sized, its height is about 70 cm. Foliage throughout the stem, the leaves are narrow, long, with pointed tops, light green with beige stripes. The color of the leaf blades does not change from the beginning of the growing season until autumn. The flowers are large - up to 30 cm in diameter, bright purple with a red tint in daylight, there is an orange area at the base of the petals. The variety of Japanese irises blooms in July, duration - 14 days. The light-loving plant prefers moist soil.

The culture is used to decorate artificial reservoirs, rock gardens

This is ideal for gardens in the Moscow region.

Rose Queen

Rose Queen cultivar is a representative of light-loving irises with high stems (up to 1 m):

  • the perianths are large, drooping, in the form of a drop, pale pink in color with bright purple veins and a lemon spot at the base;
  • the central petals are short, monochromatic lavender;
  • buds open unevenly from the second half of summer, the life cycle of a flower is 3 days;
  • flower diameter - 15-20 cm, up to 4 of them are formed on the stem;
  • leaves are xiphoid, bright green, located at the bottom of the stem. By autumn, they are painted in burgundy color.

Important! Average frost resistance. Can be grown in temperate climates with additional cover.

The variety of Japanese irises Rose Queen is suitable for cutting, often used by florists in the preparation of bouquets.

Krystal halo

Representative of Japanese irises Crystal Halo (Iris ensata Crystal Halo) is a perennial plant with late and long flowering. The cycle begins in the second half of July and continues until the end of August. The bush is dense, peduncles grow up to 1 m in height. Flowers of medium size (up to 15 cm in diameter).

The decorative effect of Crystal Halo gives the color of the petals

The bracts are large, rounded, curved, lilac with dark purple veins, a bright yellow fragment at the base and a light border along the wavy edge. Inner petals are dark inky color.

The variety of Japanese irises Crystal Halo forms many stems with shoots, each of which has 2-3 buds.

Kita-no-seiza

Japanese irises Kita-No-Seiza (Iris Kita-No-Seiza) form compact shrubs with intense foliage. The variety is classified as medium-sized, the peduncles reach a length of 70-80 cm. The stems are simple without branching, each ends with a medium-sized flower (diameter 15 cm). Terry form, open. The petals are round, light pink with white veins and a green spot at the base.

Flowering begins in July-August and lasts 20 days

Eilins Dream

The Eileens Dream variety (Iris ensata Eileens Dream) belongs to the most striking decorative form of Japanese irises. The plant is tall (90-110 cm), compact, the main arrangement of leaves is in the lower part of the stem. The flowers are large, double, with wavy edges, purple or blue with a small lemon spot. Flowering time is June-July.

Eilins Dream is recommended for the fourth climatic zone

The culture needs shelter for the winter.

Important! A variety of Japanese irises, Eilins Dream, has a low drought tolerance.

Grown for cutting and site decoration.

Application in landscape design

Representatives of Japanese irises of various colors and heights are combined with all types of flowering and evergreen plants. They are in perfect harmony with ornamental shrubs. The main condition for creating compositions is an open area without shading, as well as a neutral or slightly acidic soil composition.

Flower beds (iridariums) created from irises with different colors of flowers are popular with designers and gardeners. Low-growing varieties are used to decorate rock gardens, they also create mixborders in the style of a Japanese garden.

Description and photos of design ideas for the use of Japanese irises:

  1. Planted along the edge of the flower bed.

    Japanese irises favorably emphasize evergreen shrubs and undersized flowering plants

  2. Designs are made of natural stone.
  3. They decorate the shores of an artificial reservoir.
  4. Mass planting is used to tamp the edge of the lawn.
  5. Mixborders are created with simultaneously flowering crops.
  6. They decorate the territory of rockeries.
  7. Placed in mass planting along the garden path.
  8. Decorate garden areas.
  9. They create Japanese-style compositions.

Breeding features

You can propagate a culture by seeds, but this method is more often used to breed new varieties. To obtain seedlings of Japanese irises, seeds are sown harvested at the end of the growing season. The seed breeding process is long, the seedlings will bloom only in the third year.

Japanese irises are propagated on the site by dividing the bush or root shoots. The difference between the methods is that in the first case, the plant is removed from the soil and cut into pieces, in the second, a piece of root with shoots is cut off with a shovel.

When dividing an adult bush, at least three leaf rosettes should remain on one root section

Planting and caring for Japanese irises

Japanese iris (pictured) is an unpretentious plant, so planting and care will not cause difficulties even for novice gardeners. The place allotted for the culture must satisfy its biological needs. Preparatory measures for winter play an important role in the cultivation of irises, especially in the temperate climatic zone.

Timing

Japanese irises are placed in the Southern regions in spring (April) or autumn (October). For the Central and Middle Lane, work is not recommended to be carried out in the fall, because seedlings have a weak root system, which does not overwinter even with careful cover. Japanese irises are planted in open ground in early May, when there is no threat of return frosts, and the soil warmed up to +15 0With or in the summer, so that the seedling has time to root well.

Site selection and soil preparation

Japanese irises are light-loving flowers that lose their decorative appearance in the shade. Therefore, the following requirements are imposed on the site:

  • the place should be open, protected from the influence of the north wind;
  • do not use areas in the shade of large trees with a dense crown;
  • the soil is suitable neutral or slightly acidic, aerated, fertile, light;
  • terrain with stagnant groundwater is not allowed, but the culture feels comfortable along the banks of water bodies.

The allotted flower bed is dug up, weed roots are removed, organic matter is introduced. Wood ash is not used for growing Japanese irises, and fertilizers containing alkali are not recommended. Before work, mix a nutrient substrate from sod soil, compost and peat, add nitrogen-containing agents and potassium.

Landing algorithm

If the planting material is with a peduncle, then the central stem is cut at the root, but on the sides there must be leaf sockets (children).

With a sharp knife, carefully cut off the link that has faded

Planting sequence of Japanese irises:

  1. Leaves are cut at an angle.
  2. Dig a hole along the height of the root, taking into account 10 cm for the substrate layer.
  3. The seedling is placed in the center, the roots are untangled if necessary.
  4. Gently sprinkle with soil over the growing buds.
  5. The soil is slightly compacted so as not to damage the surface roots of the iris.
  6. The seedling is watered, you can cover the soil with mulch.

Care features

Caring for Japanese irises consists in fulfilling simple requirements:

  • the plant is spud and covered with mulch, in spring, this event excludes the appearance of weeds and retains moisture;
  • watered regularly to prevent the soil from drying out. It is not necessary to overfill the seedlings;
  • they are fed in spring with complex fertilizers, the entire period of growth can be applied to liquid organic matter.

In the fall, the aboveground part is cut off, superphosphate is introduced, and covered with a layer of straw. Young irises can be insulated with spruce branches.

Diseases and pests

Japanese irises do not get sick, the only problem can be stagnant water and cold weather, which increase the likelihood of root rot, but this rarely occurs. Thrips parasitize the plant, they get rid of them by cutting off damaged areas and treating them with insecticides.

Conclusion

Japanese irises are represented by numerous varieties with a variety of colors, shapes and sizes of flowers. They grow a culture for cutting and decorating plots, gardens, flower beds. Japanese irises are unpretentious, do not get sick, and are rarely affected by pests. They do not tolerate shaded areas and moisture deficit.


Watch the video: Japanese Iris (October 2022).

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