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Lilacs are used for decorative purposes, landscaping the site, creating a hedge. Like any plant, it is susceptible to diseases and pests. Under their influence, the shrub develops slowly and may die. Next, pests, lilac diseases and the fight against them are considered, which will help gardeners to preserve the plant.
Pests of lilacs and the fight against them
Lilac pests feed on buds, leaves, flowers, branches. As a result, shrub development slows down, fewer inflorescences appear, leaves and shoots are deformed.
If the lilac leaves with brown spots, this is the first sign of the appearance of a lilac moth on the site. Its caterpillars feed on the leaves of the bush, which turn brown, wrap up in tubes and die off. At first glance, the plant appears to have been damaged by fire.
Lilac moth butterflies fly out in mid-May - early June. For 5 - 6 days, the female lays several hundred eggs on the underside of the leaf. After 5 - 10 days, caterpillars appear, which destroy the leaf plate. Caterpillars of the second generation appear at the end of September. Their pupae overwinter in the soil at a depth of 5 cm.
Spraying lilacs with Inta-Vir, Iskra, Karbofos helps to fight the pest. The first treatment is carried out at the beginning of flowering and repeated after 3 weeks. Affected shoots are cut and burned.
The lilac mite is a dangerous pest that is invisible to the naked eye. Its dimensions do not exceed 0.2 mm. The mite damages the lilac buds, which swell and dry out on the branches. The pest feeds on the sap of young leaves. It hibernates inside the buds and begins to multiply in early spring. Several generations appear during the season.
Spraying with Carbolineum emulsion at a concentration of 6% helps to get rid of the lilac mite. Processing is carried out in early spring. During the growing season, prepare a 0.1% solution of the drug Thiofos. Spraying is performed in June during the period of active reproduction of the pest. For prevention, lilac seedlings are kept in a barrel of water before planting.
Acacia false shield
Acacia false shield is a small insect no more than 3 - 6 mm in size. Its body is oval, dark yellow or brown. Pest larvae feed on lilac juice. As a result of their activity, the size and number of leaves that fall prematurely decrease. Shoots are deformed and dry out.
The scabbard lays eggs during May. The first larvae appear in the second half of June, the next ones - in early August. The pest hibernates in the bark, cracks in the branches, at the base of the branches.
To get rid of acacia false shield, Ditox or Sumition preparations are used. These products are effective and won't wash off by rain. In personal subsidiary plots, universal insecticides are used - Fufanon and Iskra.
Advice! Lilacs are sprayed before and after flowering. For processing, choose a cloudy day, morning or evening.
The weevil is a small beetle that feeds on lilac leaves. After it, holes of various sizes remain in the sheet plate. The root shoots, leaves of the lower and middle tier are most affected by the pest.
During the day, weevils are in cracks in the bark or fallen leaves. The period of activity falls on the evening and night. Pests hibernate in bark or soil.
During the growing season, lilacs are sprayed with Fufanon Expert, Vantex, Inta-Ts-M preparations. The product is diluted with water according to the instructions and sprayed on the bush. Consumption of working solution is 2 - 5 liters per shrub. Good results are obtained by digging up the soil in the fall. The weevil is on the surface of the earth and dies when the temperature drops.
Apple comma scale
The apple scale insect is a representative of proboscis insects. The female of the parasite has a gray-brown elongated scutellum 3 mm long. Males are reddish-gray, small in size. Eggs of pests are white, oblong, hibernate under the shields of dead females. The larvae appear at the end of May and spread through the bush.
The larvae stick tightly to the shoots and form a scutellum. Under favorable conditions, the scale insect multiplies rapidly and covers most of the branches of the lilac. The shrub weakens, gives few inflorescences and is depleted.
The systemic drug Ditox helps to fight the apple scab. Pests die in the first hours after treatment. The drug is not washed off by rain. For prevention, it is necessary to thin out the crown, cut out root shoots, dry and damaged shoots.
Rose leafhopper is a narrow insect up to 3.5 mm long with green-yellow wings. The eggs of the pest hibernate in the bark at the tops of young shoots. Larvae appear when the leaves open in late April - early May. The pest feeds on the sap of the leaves. As a result, numerous white spots remain on the leaf plate.
To combat the pest, insecticides Ditox or Alfashans are chosen. The drugs are used in small doses. Their effect appears within a few hours after treatment. The solutions are not washed off by precipitation and remain effective when the weather conditions deteriorate.
The most common lilac diseases and their treatment
Timely diagnosis of diseases will help save the shrub. The following are the most common lilac diseases and their treatment with a photo. Diseases are divided into several groups, depending on the nature of the lesion.
Fungal diseases develop due to the vital activity of microscopic fungi. Usually, the lesion spreads in cold and wet weather. The cause of the disease is often the weakened immunity of the bush, caused by an excess of nitrogen and a lack of potassium. As a result, the plant becomes susceptible to fungus.
Advice! A common cause of the development of fungal diseases is high soil moisture. Therefore, during the treatment of lilacs, it is important to normalize watering.
Types of fungal diseases of lilac:
- Powdery mildew. Has the appearance of a white bloom on the leaves of a bush. First, small white spots appear, which grow and occupy the entire surface of the leaf. Within a week, the bloom becomes dark, the shrub stops developing. The disease affects both adult lilacs and young plants. Most often, its signs appear at the end of a cold and damp summer;
- Brown spot of lilac. It appears as gray spots with brown edges. Gradually, the lesion grows, the inner part dries up and falls out. Holes remain on the leaves;
- Anthracnose. The disease is detected by brown spots on lilac leaves. Ulcers may be orange or pinkish in color with a purple border. The lesion covers leaves, stems, flowers;
- Septoria. The disease appears as light spots: yellowish or gray. Gradually, the lesion spreads and causes wilting of leaves, drying of the tops of the shoots, dropping of flowers;
- Lichens. White spots on the trunk of a lilac may turn out to be lichen. These are representatives of the class Mushrooms, which often appear on old trees and shrubs. Plants with cracks in the bark and a thickened crown are at risk. Lilacs affected by lichen develop slowly and are susceptible to other diseases.
To combat lilac diseases, agents containing copper are used. This includes Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate, Topaz, Nitrofen, Oxyhom, Ridomil, Skor. They are diluted with water and sprayed with shrubs. After 7 - 10 days, the treatment is repeated.
To get rid of lichen on lilacs, choose a mechanical method. Take nylon brushes or wooden scrapers and gently clean the trunk of the bush. At the same time, they try not to damage the lilac bark. Then the treated areas are sprayed with a solution of ferrous sulfate at a concentration of 5%. Whitewashing of shrub trunks helps to reduce the risk of lichen infection.
The causative agents of this group of diseases are pathogenic viruses. The first symptoms appear in the spring when the lilac leaves bloom. Dark spots appear on them, mosaic, twisting is observed.
Description of viral diseases of lilac:
Viral diseases cannot be treated. If the degree of damage is weak, then the affected leaves and shoots are cut off. The shrub is fed with potash and phosphorus fertilizers. If the disease persists, then you will have to uproot the lilacs and disinfect the soil.
Mycoplasma diseases occur when special microorganisms are spread. They are intermediate between bacteria and viruses. Insects serve as carriers. Mycoplasmas penetrate into plant tissues and disrupt their development.
Important! Mycoplasma diseases cannot be cured. Lilacs will have to be cut down and burned to protect other crops from damage.
The most common mycoplasma disease of lilacs is paniculate. On the affected lilac, many thin lateral shoots are formed, collected in a large bunch. This disease is also called "witch's broom". The whole tree suffers from it: the leaves become small and wrinkled, their color fades, fewer flowers appear.
In order to prevent the spread of paniculate, preventive measures are taken. For planting, choose high-quality lilac seedlings. During the growing season, the shrub is sprayed to control pests-vectors of the disease.
Bacteria are unicellular microorganisms that feed on plant juices and tissues. The causative agents of bacterial diseases develop when there is damage in the lilac bark. Therefore, for their prevention, special attention is paid to examining the bush, disinfecting tools, processing after trimming the shoots.
Lilac bacterial diseases:
If the first signs of bacterial rot are found, then the lilac can still be saved. The shrub is sprayed with a solution of copper oxychloride at a concentration of 5%. The affected areas are cut and burned. The treatment is repeated after 10 days.
To combat necrosis, the affected areas of the bark are carefully removed. Then the shrub is treated with fungicides. For prevention, it is important to remove fallen leaves, perform sanitary pruning. All cracks and wounds on the lilac are treated with copper sulfate. Then they are covered with a talker made of clay and mullein.
Control and prevention measures
Diseases and pests of lilacs oppress the shrub: they are also dangerous to other plants. Fighting them involves the use of various methods. The most popular of them are chemicals and folk remedies.
Chemicals are diluted with water at the desired concentration. Be sure to use personal protective equipment. Treatments are carried out in dry cloudy weather. Frequency of spraying - no more than once every 7 - 10 days.
Folk remedies are safe for plants and humans. Such methods are not limited in use and are well suited for prophylaxis. These include infusions of wormwood, onion and garlic husks, tobacco dust, wood ash. Lilacs are dusted or sprayed with a solution.
Special measures are taken to prevent diseases and pests. This requires:
- use high-quality planting material, without defects and signs of damage;
- perform sanitary pruning of shoots;
- do not injure the bark, monitor its condition;
- remove fallen leaves in the fall;
- regularly feed lilacs with mineral complexes;
- observe the dosage of nitrogen fertilizers;
- dig up the soil in the fall;
- periodically spray the shrub with solutions of insecticides and other drugs.
Lilac diseases and the fight against them, given above, will help diagnose damage in time and take action. So that the shrub does not suffer from pests, regular spraying with insecticides is performed. In order to avoid the spread of diseases and insects, they observe agricultural techniques and carry out preventive treatments.