Gardeners, growing fruit trees, try to create a special design on the site. It is for this reason that one has to sometimes forget about the taste of the fruit, if the plant can be entered into the landscape design.
The Nedzwiecki apple tree (Malus niedzwetzkyana Dieck) is one of these fruit trees, which is most often grown not for apples, but most likely to create a composition. Judging by the description, this apple tree looks decorative at any time of the year. Features of the Nedzvetsky ornamental apple tree, its characteristics, methods of reproduction, the subtleties of cultivation and care - this is the topic of our article.
A little history won't hurt
The apple tree, named after the famous scientist from Russia Vladislav Efimovich Nedzvetsky, has existed in the wild for thousands of years. Her homeland is the Asian expanses. Gradually, the plant "migrated" first to America and then to Europe.
A Russian scientist botanist, while in Kashkar (China), saw an interesting plant and tasted its fruits. The tree itself surprised me with its decorative leaves and fruits, smooth bark.
Samples of the plant with detailed descriptions were transferred to the German scientist Georg Dick. At that time he was in Kazakhstan and managed to grow a tree. A biologist, while in Kazakhstan, grew this tree and gave it a name. This is how the Nedzwiecki apple tree appeared in the plant catalog with a description and photo.
Today, the ornamental apple tree of Nedzvetsky and its selection varieties are grown not only in gardens, but are also widely used in the landscape design of parks and squares.
Important! The apple tree of Nedzwiecki quickly adapts to any climatic conditions.
Description of the apple tree
It is difficult for a person unfamiliar with a certain variety to understand what is at stake without a description and photo. It is with him that we will begin the story of the decorative apple tree.
Features of the tree
Nedzvetsky's apple tree is described as a tall tree, growing up to 8 meters. Cracks are practically invisible on the powerful smooth trunk. The bark without thorns is gray-brown or violet-brown, the crown is in the shape of a ball, sometimes round. May be raised or spreading.
On young branches of the ornamental apple tree of Nedzvetsky, the leaves are dark purple, when all the leaves bloom, the primary color remains only on the petioles. Above, the leaves are dark emerald, and the lower part of the leaf plate is reddish with noticeable pubescence. Leaves are ovate, with a sharp tip, denticles along the edges.
The apple tree of Nedzvetsky becomes especially decorative at the time of flowering. The buds are pink-purple, and the flower itself, after blooming, turns bright pink or purple. Flowers are five-petal large, up to 5 centimeters in diameter. The inflorescence consists of several buds with thin white felt peduncles.
You can find out that there is a Nedzwiecki apple tree in the garden or park by its rich, bright aroma. Ornamental apple trees bloom for almost two weeks.
Ovaries form in place of flowers. By the time of ripening, apples grow up to 2-3 cm in diameter. They are sour to taste, with juicy pulp. Nedzvetsky's apples are globular or elongated with a dark red or violet-purple color.
A wax bloom is clearly visible on each fruit. On the cut, the flesh is pink. The number of seeds in Nedzvetsky's apples varies from 1 to 9.
Many novice gardeners are interested in whether it is possible to eat fruits from an ornamental apple tree. We answer. Not everyone dares to eat fresh apples, because they are very sour. But the fruits collected from the apple tree of Nedzwiecki are excellent raw materials for compotes, jams and preserves. Apples are usually harvested at the end of September. The fruits do not fall off the apple tree and can remain on them all winter. Frozen apples taste better. In addition, birds flock to the apple trees hung with fruits in winter.
Pros and cons of the variety
Now let's look at the positive and negative aspects of the plant.
According to the description, photos and reviews of gardeners, the apple tree of Nedzvetsky is a fast-growing frost-resistant plant, so the territory of its cultivation is becoming wider every year.
The reason for the popularity of the Nedzvetsky apple tree in landscape design, in addition to decorativeness, is also the plant's resistance to various diseases and pests. In addition, the apple tree easily tolerates drought, which is also important, since in many regions of Russia in summer, rains are a serious problem.
In addition, as gardeners write in reviews, it does not require any special conditions and is unpretentious in growing. The decorative apple tree of Nedzvetsky, the photo of which we have posted below, can be grown on any soil.
Attention! The polluted and dusty air does not have a negative impact on the development and decorativeness of the Nedzvetsky red-leaved apple tree, which is why it is planted in city parks and squares.
If we talk about the shortcomings, then this variety of ornamental apple tree has, perhaps, one: it is affected by scab.
Features of growing an apple tree Nedzvetsky
It costs nothing for gardeners with rich experience to grow an ornamental Nedzvetsky apple tree, because the care for them after planting will be the same. The plant needs:
- feed and water;
- trim and shape the crown;
- fight diseases and pests.
The only difference will be that for trees that are grown only for harvest, and for the Nedzwiecki apple tree, the purpose of pruning and crown formation will be slightly different. After all, the main thing is to give a decorative look to create landscape design. For example, the weeping apple tree of Nedzvetsky or Prirechnaya grows up to 12 meters in height, has a spreading and spherical crown. Its branches fall to the ground.
And in other varieties of ornamental apple trees, you can form a raised crown. The size of the crown will also depend on the shape chosen.
Attention! As a rule, the diameter of the crown of the Nedzvetsky apple tree can be within 3-4 meters, therefore, when planting seedlings, you need to focus on this parameter so that there is no thickening.
Where to plant
Despite the fact that a decorative apple tree is an unpretentious tree, you need to find the right place to plant it. Only in this case, you will receive a decoration for the garden, and a harvest of apples, from which you can make delicious compote and jam.
The place for planting a decorative apple tree should be well lit, and the soil should be loose, fertile. The groundwater level is also important, as stagnant water leads to rotting of the apple tree root system.
How to water
As a rule, watering is required in the spring, when a large number of pink flowers bloom on the decorative apple tree of Nedzvetsky and during the period of fruit filling.
In summer, if it rains moderately, the plants are watered once every 30 days. Heat and drought make their own adjustments to watering: you need to water the apple trees at least three times a month.
Watering ornamental apple trees of Nedzwiecki under the root should be early in the morning or after sunset. In the evening, you can also spray the entire crown with a hose to wash away the dust. In the morning and in the afternoon, such a procedure cannot be carried out, otherwise the leaf blades will receive a sunburn.
Other types of work
Advice! Each watering should be accompanied by shallow loosening of the soil to enrich the soil with oxygen, and mulching with fresh grass (without seeds!) Or peat.
Loosening and weeding must be carried out carefully, because the roots of the Nedzvetsky apple tree are superficial according to the description. The root system of the apple tree is on the surface, so weeding and weeding must be done carefully. It is advisable to carry out this process after each watering so that the roots receive enough air.
Since the plant blooms profusely and bears fruit, it quickly depletes the soil. That is why the apple tree for successful development needs to be fed with organic and mineral fertilizers. The first time feeding is carried out in the spring, then at the beginning of summer and at the end of August. The last time they feed the plant before the shelter for the winter.
Important! Nutrients are added at the same time as watering.
Diseases and pests
According to the description, photo and reviews, the apple tree of Nedzvetsky is a plant resistant to diseases and pests. But since it grows among other trees, problems cannot be avoided. That is why one should not abandon preventive treatments:
- In early spring, when temperatures are still low, you need to whiten the apple tree trunks with lime. It not only destroys pests, but also saves the bark from sunburn.
- Young growth, as well as weeds, must be methodically removed, because it is in them that the eggs of aphids hibernate, and on them they reproduce in the first place.
- Branches and a near-stem circle and from scab are subject to processing with special preparations in the spring.
Apple tree pruning
The Nedzwiecki apple variety is grown mainly as an ornamental tree to decorate the garden or public recreation areas of the townspeople. Moreover, not only wild-growing, but also selective forms are used for these purposes. Therefore, the main purpose of pruning Nedzvetsky's apple tree is crown formation.
The first time work is carried out in early spring with a two-year-old tree: young twigs are shortened by two-thirds so that lateral shoots with leaves and inflorescences appear on them. Branches with damage are subject to pruning.
In subsequent years, the operation is repeated to obtain the desired crown shape with a large number of lateral branches, as in the photo below.
Advice! Work must be carried out before the start of sap flow, and the cuts must be covered with garden var.
Preparing for winter
In regions with a harsh climate, the frost-resistant decorative apple tree of Nedzvetsky still has to be covered. This applies to the root system. The trunk is hilled, and the near-trunk circle is covered with peat or compost and covered with spruce branches.
But not only frosts can cause the death of an ornamental apple tree. Mice and hares do a lot of harm. From small rodents, you can sprinkle poison under the compost. And from hares, the trunks of the decorative apple tree of Nedzvetsky are wrapped with paper or pulled over young trees with a net, as in the photo.
Before the shelter, Nedzvetsky's apple trees are fed, watered and treated against pests.
With the arrival of warm spring days, the shelter is removed.
How to propagate an apple tree
Now let's talk about the Nedzwiecki apple tree and its reproduction. You can get a new tree in the traditional way - buy a seedling, or grow it yourself from seeds.
The process, of course, is lengthy, but interesting. Fresh seeds from the Nedzwiecki apple tree do not germinate, they will have to be stimulated. For this, stratification is carried out: for 3 or 4 months, the seeds must lie at a temperature of three degrees.
Place the seed on a damp cloth in the refrigerator in the vegetable drawer. When the stratification is completed, we sow seeds in fertile soil for germination. We water the sprouted sprouts of a decorative apple tree and keep them in a warm room on a sunny window.
With the onset of heat, we plant it outside for growing. They are transplanted to a permanent place for the next year. The principle of planting the Nedzvetsky apple tree is no different from the traditional one. Only the hole needs to be made large so as not to oppress the root system.
Application in landscape design
Not many people like the ornamental apple tree of Nedzvetskiy. But the original external data at any time of the year allows you to use the plant for decoration. Many landscape designers believe that decorative apple trees of Nedzwiecki are in no way inferior in beauty to Japanese sakura. Moreover, the apple tree looks equally beautiful both in a single planting and in combination with other plants.
With proper pruning and crown formation, you can get a hedge from Nedzvetsky apple trees, as in the photo below.
Apple tree of Nedzvetsky in landscape design:
Svetlana, 34 years old, Brest
Six years ago I bought an almond sapling. But then it turned out that this is a decorative apple tree of Nedzvetsky. She bloomed in the third year after planting. I have never seen such beauty. A corner of the garden blazed like dawn. And the smell of bees flocked from all over the area. The tree was no less beautiful in the fall, when the purple fruits ripened. We tried to eat them fresh, but they were painfully sour. Cooked compote and jam, nothing, delicious.
Angelina, 43 years old, Usolye-Sibirskoye
Somehow five years ago I went to Tyumen, and next to the mammoth museum I saw a tall flowering tree. I found out that this is Nedzvetsky's miracle apple tree and ordered a seedling by mail. There were no problems after landing. Now I have my own tree in the garden with beautiful leaves, flowers, fruits and crown. Even in our harsh conditions, my Nedzvetsky apple tree does not freeze, although I do not cover it especially. I also have young plants grown from seeds.
Nikolay, 29 years old, Rostov-on-Don
As far back as I can remember, such a tree grew at my parents' dacha. We did not know its name for a long time. And this is not the point, the main thing is that the decorative apple tree of Nedzvetsky did not require special care, practically did not hurt. And my father carried out pruning, as on fruit trees, because we collected fruits for compotes, jams. And after the first frost, they ate small apples together with neighboring boys and birds.