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Treatment of bees in the fall includes a whole range of measures aimed at creating favorable wintering conditions for bees. The preservation of the bee colony and the honey harvest of the next year depend on the state in which the bees spend the winter. This set of measures includes the mandatory preventive or therapeutic treatment of hives and bees in order to prevent the massive death of insects from diseases and parasites.
Purposes of processing bees in the fall
Losses from diseases of bees in the apiary are significant. Most often, the diseases are of a mixed nature. The most common remain varroatosis and nosematosis. They also identify such dangerous diseases as ascospherosis, aspergillosis and foulbrood. This happens, most often, due to untimely detection of the disease, weakening of families, improper feeding, violation of bee hygiene and irregular disinfection.
In winter, bees and young individuals, already weakened from summer work, usually go. To protect them from common infections and parasites, the beekeeper must carry out disinfecting measures.
Another phenomenon has been discovered that occurs in the fall - the gathering of bee colonies, when whole families disappear, and the reasons for this are not entirely clear. Beekeepers are inclined to believe that tick attacks are to blame. Bees feel that they cannot overcome the parasites and leave the hives in search of a safe place. Therefore, measures to prevent such tick-borne infestations must be carried out with the beginning of autumn.
Prevention of bees from diseases in autumn
After the last honey collection, as a rule, an examination of the bee colonies is carried out in order to determine the preparation of the hive for winter. By the fall, bees weaken, they are most susceptible to various diseases and the invasion of ticks. The audit will help to understand what preventive measures need to be taken and what kind of autumn bee treatment should be carried out.
Even if no problems with the condition of the bees were found during examination, it is recommended to carry out prophylaxis to protect the hive for the whole winter and treatment of bees in the fall. Disinfection is one of the important measures. It includes:
- Mechanical cleaning.
- Treatment of frames with disinfectants.
- Removal of the remainder of disinfectants.
Good quality food, which needs to provide the bee colony in the required amount for the whole winter, is also a preventive measure against diseases.
Advice! Experienced beekeepers add medicinal and reinforcing drugs to the syrup, which bees are fed with in autumn, to prevent certain infectious diseases.
It is recommended to treat bees in the fall from ticks and various infections as early as possible. Treatment should be started after the end of the honey collection or immediately after the detection of the disease. Otherwise, with the active spread of the disease, the uterus may stop producing brood. The greatest effect, as practice shows, is achieved in warm weather, when outside the daytime temperature can be +100FROM.
How to process bees in the fall
Recently, a drug such as "Bipin" has been widely used for the prevention of diseases. You can also apply one of the popular methods of processing the hive. The dosage of "Bipin" should be set on the basis of the instructions in the instructions and assessment of the state of the bee colony. Usually 10 ml of the prepared solution is used per street.
Processing with such a solution must be carried out at least twice. The first time - right after the end of the main bribe, in order to have time to grow a healthy brood, and the second - before the formation of the club.
There are two options for using "Bipin":
- spraying the prepared solution with a syringe;
- use of smoke when burning the drug in smoke cannons.
The first method is considered the most accessible, simple and inexpensive. However, beekeepers appreciate the ease of use of the second method. Insect processing takes place in a matter of minutes. If the apiary is large, then it is advisable to purchase a smoke cannon.
In the case when no signs of the disease were found during the autumn inspection, a very simple method can be used to disinfect the hive for preventive purposes:
- The hive is treated with hot air.
- A solution of 100 g of alcohol with 30 g of propolis is applied to the entire surface of the nest.
Bees not only need to be treated, but measures should be taken to maintain health and strengthen immunity. For this purpose, autumn feeding with industrial preparations "Pchelka" or "Biospon", as well as self-prepared "KAS-81" from plant raw materials, is suitable.
How to treat bees in the fall
Treatment of bees is a forced measure aimed at saving the bee colony and increasing the honey yield. To combat bee diseases in the fall, only approved agents should be used in the indicated doses. Overdose is dangerous for eggs, larvae and adults. It can lead to poisoning of individuals and contamination of bee products with drugs.
There are three main treatments:
The physical is the heat treatment of hives and bee colonies. Biological is used using formic and oxalic acids. Chemical involves the use of medications.
What medicines to give bees in the fall
One of the most common and effective drugs for the treatment of bee colonies in the fall are those based on amitraz, a poison against ticks. These include "Bipin". Experienced beekeepers advise spraying the medicine immediately after taking a bribe. Then the greatest result is achieved, and young bees will be less infected with the parasite.
The following remedies also help in the treatment of bees:
- strips "Bayvarola", "Aspistan", which are placed in the nests between the frames for at least 25 days;
- "Timol" - used before the formation of a nest from rotten diseases;
- "TEDA" - acts against varroatosis and acarapidosis with an efficiency of up to 99%;
- "Fumagol" - used in the treatment of varroatosis and nosematosis.
Medicines should be given to bees in the fall after preparation and disinfection of the nests. It is recommended to use the funds for no more than 4 seasons due to the addiction and adaptation of parasites to them.
The use of traditional medicine
Autumn processing of bees can be carried out with a remedy made in a folk way. This is the so-called "KAS-81", developed by the All-Russian Research Institute of Veterinary Sanitation. You can prepare it yourself according to the following instructions:
- Prepare pine buds in spring until they swell, together with shoots about 3 cm long.
- Collect wormwood leaves before and during flowering.
- Dry the prepared raw materials separately (the properties remain for 2 years).
- Take 50 g of buds, 50 g of wormwood before flowering, 900 g of wormwood during flowering, chop coarsely, pour 10 liters of water, boil over low heat for 2 hours.
- Leave the broth for 10 hours, strain through cheesecloth.
It should be used immediately after preparation, adding to the sugar syrup for bees at the rate of 50 ml of broth per 1 liter of syrup. For treatment, you need to feed the bees 5-6 liters of syrup with a medicinal decoction. According to practice, this treatment allows you to get rid of 94% of parasites.
Smoke treatment of parasites is considered to be an effective method in the fight against ticks. After half an hour of exposure to smoke, dead insects begin to fall to the bottom of the hive. Damp fallen leaves can be used as a source of smoke.
The use of oxalic acid is popular with beekeepers to control mites. The substance is diluted to a certain concentration, poured into a special evaporator and installed above the nest. Evaporating, the agent has a detrimental effect on parasites, burning their respiratory tract. Keep it in this position for 3 to 5 days. Outside temperature must be between +140From to +250FROM.
Important! Formic acid is used in the same way as oxalic acid. The difference is that it needs to be applied much more, which accordingly affects the cost of the drug.
How to process bees in winter
The hot summer serves as a favorable time for the varroa mite to grow and reproduce. Bees tired of summer work easily get varroatosis. And the active spread of this disease occurs in the winter.
In order for the family to survive until next summer and begin healthy honey harvesting, it is necessary to process the bees against the parasite for the winter. For this, the medicine "Bipin" has been developed. It is also popular with beekeepers because it is inexpensive and easy to use.
It is used in almost all apiaries after the autumn revision at the end of August before the offspring appears, not only for medicinal, but also for prophylactic purposes. You need to act strictly according to the instructions:
- The agent in the amount of 0.5 ml must be diluted in 1 liter of warm, clean water.
- Draw in a syringe and spray all members of the bee colony.
The water should not be hot. The resulting solution becomes milky. For processing, you need to purchase an automatic syringe, a dropper needle and a measuring cup. One family consumes one syringe of funds.
Processing must be carried out outside the hive in special cassettes. After spraying, the mites die and fall off the bees.
Warning! This method should not be used in winter or at other times of the year at low temperatures. Otherwise, the bees may die from hypothermia.
Treatment of bees in autumn is one of the most important measures for creating favorable wintering conditions and preserving the bee colony. Timely destruction of parasites and prevention of infectious diseases will help the bees to retain strength and offspring for fruitful work next summer.