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The secrets of winemaking are passed down from generation to generation, and it will take many years to master them. Anyone can make wine at home. If the technology is followed, you can get wine with good taste, which in many respects surpasses store-bought ones.
The recipe for homemade red grape wine includes a certain sequence of actions. It must be observed regardless of the selected grape variety. The order of preparation is adjusted depending on the type of wine you want to get.
Grape variety selection
To obtain red wine, you need grapes of the appropriate varieties. Red wines are distinguished by their intense taste and aroma, which depend on the content of tannins in the seeds of the berries.
In Russia, you can make red wine from the following grape varieties:
- "Tsimlyansky Black";
- Cabernet Sauvignon;
- Pinot Noir;
It is best to choose table grapes for wine. These varieties are distinguished by small bunches and small berries. Red wine is made from blue, black and red fruits.
Preparation of ingredients
Harvesting grapes for further production of wine must be carried out in compliance with certain rules:
- berries are harvested in late September or early October;
- work in the vineyard is carried out in sunny weather;
- unripe berries contain a large amount of acid;
- tart taste appears when using ripe grapes;
- overripe berries promote vinegar fermentation, which leads to wine spoilage;
- fallen grapes are not used in winemaking;
- after picking the berries, 2 days are given for their processing.
The collected berries must be sorted out, removing the leaves and branches. Damaged or rotten fruits are also harvested.
To obtain red wine, you will need the following components:
- grapes - 10 kg;
- sugar (depending on the desired taste);
- water (for sour juice only).
It is not recommended to use metal containers for work, with the exception of stainless steel. When interacting with the metal, an oxidation process occurs, which ultimately negatively affects the taste of the wine. Containers made of wood or food grade plastic can be used.
Advice! For wine, do not use containers where milk was stored. Even after processing, bacteria can remain in it.
The container is pre-disinfected so that mold or other pathogenic microbes do not get into the juice. In industrial conditions, containers are fumigated with sulfur, while at home it is enough to rinse them with hot water and wipe them thoroughly.
The classic technology for making homemade wine includes several stages. If you follow them, you get a delicious drink. The above recipe allows you to prepare a semi-dry red wine that has a certain sweetness due to the addition of sugar. How to make homemade wine, tells the following procedure:
Getting the pulp
The pulp is called the transferred grapes. In the process, it is important not to damage the seeds, due to which the wine becomes tart.
Advice! It is recommended to crush the grapes by hand or use a wooden rolling pin.
The fruits must be transferred and the resulting mass must be placed in an enamel bowl. The grapes should fill the container ¾ of their volume. The future wine is covered with a piece of cloth to protect it from insects, and placed in a warm and dark place with a constant temperature of 18 to 27 ° C.
Fermentation of grapes takes place within 8-20 hours, which leads to the formation of a crust on the surface of the mass. To eliminate it, the wine must be stirred daily with a wooden stick or by hand.
Over the next three days, the pulp ferments, which becomes lighter. When sizzling sounds and a sour aroma appear, squeeze out the grape juice.
The pulp is collected in a separate container and then squeezed out. The procedure is carried out manually or using a press. The juice obtained from the sediment and by squeezing the grape pulp is passed through cheesecloth several times.
Pouring grape juice will eliminate foreign particles and saturate it with oxygen for further fermentation.
Important! If the grape juice turns out to be too acidic, then at this stage the addition of water is required.
Usually water is added in cases where grapes grown in northern regions are used. For 1 liter of juice, 0.5 liters of water is enough. This method is not recommended, as the result is a decrease in the quality of the finished wine.
If the grape juice tastes sour, then it is best to leave everything unchanged. With further fermentation, the acid content in the wine will decrease.
Future wine is poured into glass bottles, which are filled to 70% of the volume.
Installation of a water seal
With constant contact with oxygen, the wine turns sour. At the same time, you need to get rid of the carbon dioxide that is released during fermentation. The installation of a water seal helps to solve this problem.
Its design includes a cover with a hole where the hose is inserted. The odor trap is installed on a container with future wine. The device can be purchased from specialized stores or you can make your own.
Advice! The functions of a water seal can be performed by an ordinary rubber glove, which is put on the neck of a bottle of wine. A hole is pre-pierced in the glove.
After installing the water seal, the container is placed in a room with a temperature of 22 to 28 ° C. When the temperature drops, the fermentation of wine stops, so you need to monitor the maintenance of the required microclimate.
Every 2% sugar in grape juice provides 1% alcohol in the finished product. When growing grapes in the regions, its sugar content is about 20%. If you do not add sugar, you will get an unsweetened wine with a strength of 10%.
If the alcohol content exceeds 12%, the activity of wine yeast will stop. At home, you can use a hydrometer to determine the sugar content of wine. This is a device that allows you to establish the density of a liquid.
Another option is to use averages for the grape variety. However, it should be borne in mind that these data vary depending on the region. Such statistics are not kept in every region.
Therefore, the main guideline is the taste of the wine, which should remain sweet, but without cloying. Sugar is added in parts. The first sample is removed from the wine 2 days after the start of the fermentation process. If there is a sour taste, sugar is added.
Advice! 1 liter of grape juice requires 50 g of sugar.
First you need to drain a few liters of wine, then add the required amount of sugar. The resulting mixture is poured back into the container.
This sequence of actions is repeated up to 4 times within 25 days. If the process of reducing sugar content has slowed down, this indicates a sufficient concentration of sugar.
Removal from sediment
If there are no bubbles in the water seal for 2 days (or the glove no longer inflates), the wine is clarified. A sediment forms at the bottom, which contains fungi that cause an unpleasant odor and bitter taste.
Young wine is poured through a siphon, which is a hose with a diameter of 1 cm. The end of the tube is not brought close to the sediment.
At this stage, active fermentation of the wine has finished, so the addition of sugar will not affect its strength.
Important! The sugar concentration depends on personal preference, but is no more than 250 g per 1 liter of wine.
Sugar is added in the same way as a few steps earlier. If the wine is sweet enough, you don't need to use a sweetener.
Fortified wine can be obtained by adding alcohol. Its concentration should not exceed 15% of the total volume. In the presence of alcohol, the wine is stored longer, but its aroma loses its richness.
Maturation of wine
The final taste of the wine is formed as a result of a quiet fermentation. This period takes from 60 days to six months. This aging is sufficient to produce red wine.
Fully filled containers with wine are placed under a water seal. You can also close them tightly with a lid. For storing wine, choose a dark place with a temperature of 5 to 16 ° C. Temperature rise up to 22 ° C is allowed.
Advice! Sharp fluctuations negatively affect the quality of the wine.
If a sediment appears in the containers, then the wine is poured. If the wine turns out cloudy, then you can clarify it. This procedure will improve the appearance of the drink, but will not affect its taste.
For red wines, it is recommended to use egg white, to which a little water is added. The mixture is whipped and poured into a container of wine. The result can be seen within 20 days.
Storing homemade wine
The finished red grape wine is bottled and corked. You can store your homemade drink for 5 years at a temperature of 5 to 12 ° C.
The best option is to use dark bottles that protect the wine from light. The bottles are placed in an inclined position.
Homemade wine keeps well in oak barrels. Previously, they are filled with water, which is constantly changed. Immediately before pouring the wine, the barrels are treated with soda and boiling water.
It is recommended to store wine in a cellar, basement or earthen pit. Another solution is the use of special cabinets where the necessary conditions are maintained.
Preparing dry wine
Homemade dry wine is low in sugar. This drink has a ruby or pomegranate hue. Dry wine tastes light, has a slight sourness.
To obtain a dry wine, no sugar is added during the fermentation of the juice. Its concentration is no more than 1%. During fermentation, bacteria recycle all of the fructose.
Dry wines are considered the most natural and healthy, however, there are increased requirements for the quality of the grapes. For their preparation, berries with a sugar content of 15 to 22% are required.
The process of making dry homemade wine from grapes follows the classic recipe, however, the stages with the addition of sugar are excluded.
Homemade wine is prepared with strict adherence to technology. First, you need to collect the grapes in dry weather and prepare the container. Depending on the recipe, you can get dry or semi-dry wine. The finished drink is stored in bottles or barrels.