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Making a screw splitter with your own hands is not difficult. To heat a house with an area of 150-200 m², you need 25-30 m³ of firewood. Chipping this amount is a very difficult task, especially for older people. To mechanize this difficult work, craftsmen make various devices.
The most common among them is a cone splitter. Such a device can be purchased on a retail network or made independently. The second, of course, is more interesting, especially for a person with metal skills. Not everyone can afford to buy a screw cleaver in a store. Its price is 25,000-30,000 rubles, and models of foreign manufacturers are even more expensive.
This rather simple mechanism consists of the following main parts:
- drive motor;
- belt or gear transmission (gear);
- screw mechanism with support.
A splitter can be used as an electric motor or an internal combustion engine. Some models can be connected to the tractor via a power take-off shaft. The last 2 drives are more expensive, because they require a large consumption of gasoline or diesel fuel for operation.
The most common option is an electric motor. A 3-phase motor is usually used for a splitter, but if there is no such network, then a household 1-phase motor can be used. In any case, the rotation speed should not exceed 500 rpm, since at large it is difficult to keep the log on the table and injury may occur. Usually an engine is used whose power does not exceed 3-5 kW. Its start is carried out by a magnetic starter, which includes elements of electrical protections.
The drive is mounted on a bed with bolts to prevent its movement and is located in the lower part of the frame. The rotational movement of the engine is transmitted through 2 brook pulleys to the screw mechanism by means of V-belts. The ratio of pulley diameters should be such that the required rotation speed is ensured. Optimal - 300-400 rpm. The pulleys must be in the same vertical area, otherwise the belts will “fly off” from the streams.
The splitting machine can be equipped with a gear motor. Such a device does not require the use of a belt drive. The electric motor is attached directly to the gearbox flange and through it transmits rotation to the splitting cone. This unit is fixed on the bed table. Before starting work, it is necessary to check the presence of oil in the gearbox and, if there is no oil, top up. Otherwise, the unit will fail.
The bed is used for fastening all the mechanisms of the conical splitter and is made from a corner of 40x40 mm or profile pipes. The upper part of the frame is sewn up with sheet metal and is a table that serves to install a cone with a support and the location of the chocks for splitting. All elements of the bed are fastened together by welding. This design can be stationary and mobile. For this, an axle with wheels is mounted on 2 supports. This will facilitate the movement of the machine around the yard, and in case of bad weather it can be easily and quickly removed to the utility room.
How to make a wood splitter carrot
Support screw mechanism
The main working body of the machine is a cone (carrot) with a profile thread. The usual metric is not used due to the low profile height, which is not able to enter the tree. The best option is to use a taper (sawtooth) thread for the cone.
This is a cargo metric thread with an angle of inclination of the sides of the profile 30 ° and 3 °. When the diameter of the working body is from 80 mm to 2,000 mm, reinforced thread is used. Its angle of inclination is 45 ° and 3 °. The use of such a screw mechanism allows you to easily screw into a tree and at the same time hold it firmly.
The screw is mounted on an axis with a pulley, which is located in the support. To prevent shaft runout during rotation, 2 ball bearings are used, which are installed in the bearing housing. Such a part can be purchased at a specialized store or ordered from a turner. It is almost impossible to make a screw on your own without a lathe and turning knowledge.
It is possible to make a wood splitter yourself even in the absence of a part of the necessary parts. However, if there are no welding skills, then it would be better to purchase such a machine in a store or order from a specialist. Poor welding can result in serious injury.
To make a homemade splitter, you will need:
- profile pipes or corner;
- sheet metal;
- electric motor with a starter;
- screw cone;
- bearing with bearing units and shaft;
- pulleys and V-belts;
Drawings for the manufacture of the machine, in the presence of certain skills, can be prepared independently or found on a thematic forum on the Internet. Many craftsmen who made such an assembly on their own upload not only them, but also videos with a sequence of actions.
Work begins with the manufacture of the bed. For this, profile pipes 40x25 mm or a corner 40x40 mm are used. The dimensions of the frame will depend on the dimensions of the parts used and can be approximately:
- height - 70-80 cm;
- width - 50-55 cm;
- length - 70-80 cm.
Structurally, the bed consists of 4 legs (supports), interconnected by welding with horizontal pipe sections or corners. At the bottom there is a place to install an electric motor. This can be an additional frame made of the same material, or a platform of sheet iron.
Jumpers in the upper part are welded on the same level with the ends of the legs. The resulting frame is sheathed with sheet metal with a thickness of at least 1 mm. A screw mechanism with a pulley is mounted on one side. A wedge is welded under the screw, which will fix the wooden block while chopping. An electric motor is installed on the lower platform. Both pulleys must be in the same plane. The starter is mounted on one of the supports so that it is possible to conveniently and quickly turn off the unit in case of an unusual situation.
To protect the worker from electric shock, you must ground your machine. Drive belts are closed by a protective casing. This will protect against personal injury and foreign objects entering the area of rotating drives.
It must be remembered that the entire load is concentrated on one side of the structure. This must be taken into account when installing it for work. To make the machine easier to move, it is equipped with wheels that are located on an axis mounted under the electric motor. Before making the first start-up of the unit, you must make sure that all parts are securely fastened. The finished cone splitter is cleaned of rust and painted. The electric motor is connected to the network with a 4-core cable of the appropriate cross section with mandatory grounding.
Wood splitter has long been an indispensable tool in farms where there is no natural gas. Such a device, if possible, should be in every private house in which the heating system works with a heat source using solid fuel.