The work of a beekeeper is very painstaking. Work on the apiary continues throughout the year. Not only for young beekeepers, but also for those with a wealth of experience, it is useful to have a beekeeper's calendar, with plans by month for the whole of 2021. It will be an excellent reminder not only of the necessary work, but also of the little things, without which it is impossible to obtain the planned volume of production.
Beekeeper's calendar for 2021
Every month in the apiary it is necessary to carry out work typical for this period. The beekeeper's calendar for 2021 contains tips, recommendations, reminders to avoid mistakes and highlight the most important aspects of apiary maintenance. On its basis, it is recommended to keep your own, your own notes, which will help to further analyze the results and correct shortcomings. The records that the beekeeper makes over the years provide invaluable experience. The entire calendar for 2021 is divided into four seasons and their corresponding months. Each month assumes its own amount of necessary work of the beekeeper.
Work in the apiary in winter
According to the calendar for 2021, during this period there are not many worries with bee colonies. The work of a beekeeper in an apiary in December is mainly to prepare for the next season: melt wax, buy foundation, necessary equipment, prepare frames, fix hives or make new ones. Later, it is worth taking care of accelerating the melting of snow in the apiary. If during the preparation all requirements are met and the amount of feed per colony is at least 18 kg, then wintering can be considered successful. In order to prevent the death of bee colonies (which often happens at the end of winter), you need to periodically listen to each family in January-February. An experienced beekeeper determines its condition by the sound in the hive. A steady, quiet hum speaks of normal wintering, a strong one - of dryness in the hive or lack of food. Starving insects do not make a sound, and with a light blow to the house, a small noise is heard, reminiscent of the rustle of dry leaves. To save families, the beekeeper needs to feed with sugar syrup.
In accordance with the recommendations of the calendar for 2021 in December, the beekeeper should carry out a number of activities:
- Provide ventilation conditions for the hives.
- To scare away rodents from the nests, drip 15 drops of mint onto the flight board.
- Renew the flour and alabaster mix to kill mice.
- Take care of frames, foundation and wire.
- Conduct an inventory of all property.
- Listen to bee colonies at least once.
In the middle of winter, snow cover can significantly increase, and frosts intensify. In the absence of extremely warm temperatures, the bee colony is in the club, there is no brood yet. Necessary events in January 2021, which should be carried out by the beekeeper according to the calendar:
- Listen to hives constantly.
- Clean the entrances from snow.
- Continue rodent control.
- Track the status of the club using a sheet of white paper pulled out through the notch.
- If necessary, carry out top dressing.
Top dressing in winter is performed only as a last resort, if the frames are really empty. Warm syrup prepared by a beekeeper in a bag with holes or diluted honey can help solve this problem.
In the last winter month, frosts are frequent, snowstorms are possible. The day is getting longer, the sun warms better. Insects are more sensitive to weather changes and changes. The colony gradually wakes up, increases feed intake and therefore needs more oxygen. At this time, the beekeeping calendar for 2021 recommends:
- Listen to hives weekly.
- Check ventilation in the houses.
- To clean the entrances from the dead.
- Continue rodent control.
- At the end of the month, feed the kandy.
In the second half of February 2021, to speed up the melting of snow, beekeepers sprinkle the snow near the hives with ash, earth or coal dust.
Spring work in the apiary
The purpose of the spring beekeeping works is to prepare for the new season of 2021, to assess the strength of each family. In spring, the temperature in the hives rises significantly and the bees become more restless and noisy. They can behave in the same way when there is a lack of liquid: in this case, beekeepers provide the insects with water. After the bees fly around, you need to conduct a complete inspection of the bee colonies. It is best to do this when the weather is favorable. The subject of the survey is the state of the colony, the availability of food, the quality of the queens, sowing, printed brood. Beekeepers at this stage can identify the causes of the death of families, if any, clean the hives of debris and dead wood. If necessary, frames with honey or sugar syrup should be substituted in the feed. If there is mold in the hive, the beekeeper transplants the family into another house prepared in advance, and the freed one cleans and burns with a blowtorch.
In the first spring month, temperature drops, thaws, blizzards are frequent. Life in the hives is activated, brood is laid. According to the beekeeper's calendar, in March 2021 it is necessary:
- Remove snow from the front wall of the hive.
- Review families, conduct their revision.
- Treat bees with drugs when diseases are detected.
- Substitute frames with food, after opening the combs and sprinkling them with warm water.
- Remove the remaining snow from the apiary.
- Wax additional frames to expand the nests.
The weather is unstable, during the day the air temperature is above zero, frosts occur at night. Families fly around, new bees appear, the first flow of primroses and trees begins. In beekeeping, the spring events of the April 2021 calendar are reduced to the following events:
- To carry out treatment from a tick.
- Disinfect inventory, hives.
- If necessary, transfer the colony to another house.
- Top dressing.
- Install drinkers.
During this period, it becomes warm, gardens bloom en masse, bribes begin. Beekeepers are building up the power of bee colonies. Insects actively pull back the foundation, collect pollen and nectar. The beekeeper's calendar for May 2021 advises:
- Remove unnecessary frames.
- If there is a threat of frost, insulate the family.
- Treat moths, nosematosis and acarapidosis.
- Provide anti-swarming measures.
Watching bees and working in an apiary in summer
In June, bee colonies grow rapidly and swarm. In summer, observing bees means that the queen has a place to lay eggs, and the bees have the opportunity to build combs and collect honey. The beekeeper should discard queens if the colony is underdeveloped or weakened. It is necessary to pump out the honey and put an additional body (store). With the help of the printed brood, it is necessary to strengthen the layering of the colonies.
If there is a good honey harvest, then the beekeeper needs to put in the stock filled with honey and sealed frames, add cases and stores in a timely manner. Pump out - only fully ripe honey when more than 50% of the frame is sealed. The beekeeper in the summer should not miss the moment of reducing the bribe, periodically inspect the hives, pump out honey, remove stores and prevent the theft of bees. It is also necessary to remember about the treatment of varroatosis.
Summer time is the most active period of apiary functioning. Flowering of honey plants, swarming, expansion of families begins. Main actions for beekeepers in June 2021, according to the calendar:
- Take the hives to the honey collection.
- Use different methods to interrupt swarming.
- Treat the tick with herbal preparations so as not to harm the quality of honey.
- Put shops on the hives.
Apiary work in July
In the middle of summer, there is a massive flowering of melliferous crops. The peak of the bribe is a stressful time. The beekeeper's calendar for July 2021 recommends:
- Prepare spare frames.
- Install an additional housing on the hive to stimulate the family to collect honey.
- Open the entrances as much as possible for the bees.
- Remove sealed, "ready-made" frames in time, substituting empty ones.
- Change queens for young ones to improve subsequent wintering and the absence of swarming.
In the last month of summer, night air temperatures decrease. The main honey plants have already faded. The number of bees is gradually decreasing, the bee colony is preparing for wintering. According to the calendar, the work of the beekeeper in the apiary after the main bribe in August 2021 includes:
- Pumping honey and drying the honeycomb.
- Completing the nest.
- Carrying out autumn feeding.
- Rejection of low-quality frames and honeycombs.
- Measures to prevent theft.
- If necessary, unification of weak families.
The main work with bees after honey pumping is to prepare for a successful wintering in 2021 and lay the foundation for the next harvest season.
Work in the apiary in the autumn
Despite the presence of a bribe supporter in the first weeks of autumn, the season for beekeepers is ending. The main task at this time, according to the 2021 calendar, includes preparations for wintering. To this end, the beekeeper checks the brood, feed stocks, and carries out the reduction of families. Consideration should be given to protecting the hives from rodents and reducing entrances to keep warm and prevent theft.
The average daily temperature is set at 10 ° C. Night frosts happen. Sometimes the warmth returns for a short time. Young bees are born, which have to live until spring. Before a long winter, they need a flight to cleanse the intestines. As soon as the temperature drops below 7⁰C, the bees gather in the club. The beekeeper's calendar for September 2021 provides for the following activities in the apiary:
- Chemical treatment for varroatosis.
- Cleaning and disinfection of empty hives.
- Sushi cleaning.
- Collecting propolis.
- Bookmark for winter storage of frames with bee bread and honey.
- Processing of raw wax.
In the middle of autumn it gradually gets colder, cloudy weather and rains become frequent. At the end of the month, snow may fall, the soil may begin to freeze. The bees are in the club. But if the temperature rises, then it disintegrates, and then they fly around. The later this happens, the more reliable the wintering. According to the beekeeper's calendar in October 2021:
- Complete the storage of frames, stores and cases.
- Exterminate mice in the winter house.
The temperature drops below zero, at the end of the month frosts become stable. Snow is falling. The beekeeper's calendar for 2021 in December suggests:
- Drying the winter house, checking ventilation in it.
- Transfer of hives to the winter house.
- If the houses remain on the street, then they should be insulated and covered with snow from three sides.
- Track the behavior of bee colonies after wintering.
Beekeeper's calendar according to the Cebro method
The method of Vladimir Tsebro is characterized by:
- threefold increase in the number of bee colonies by the time of the main flow;
- annual renewal of queens;
- unification for wintering of three families into one, strong;
- use of three-body hives.
According to the Cebro calendar:
- In January, the beekeeper observes and listens to the behavior of the bee colony, removes dead wood, insulates the hives.
- In February, you need to conduct a laboratory analysis for insect diseases.
- In March - to carry out top dressing, treatment.
- In April - remove all the dead water, install drinkers, feeders. During this period, the beekeeper can unite families in the event of the death of the queen.
- In May - to form layers, to plant young queens.
- In June, beekeepers change queens and brood, attach layers.
From July to December, the beekeeper is engaged in his normal activities. In August, according to the Cebro calendar, during preparation for wintering, it is worth uniting families, reducing their number by three times.
The beekeeper's calendar for 2021 is a guide to action and help for beginners. Over the years, experience will accumulate, beekeeping itself will turn into an exciting occupation, professionalism will grow. This is possible only if the basic postulates and rules are observed in combination with our own best practices and secrets, which should be recorded in the beekeeper's calendar of 2021 and subsequent years.