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Gooseberries are called "northern grapes", "Russian cherry plum" for its taste and external similarity with these fruits. But the thorny shrub, common on all continents, except Australia, South America and Africa, has a botanical resemblance to the currant, which is common for our latitudes, "generous" and vitamin berry.
The gooseberry has many fans. Summer residents grow it mainly for winter preparations: compote and very tasty healthy jam. Therefore, interest in the Malachite variety and in the agricultural technology of its cultivation is quite justified.
Breeding history of the variety
Gooseberry Malachite is a relatively new variety, developed on the basis of the best species characteristics of the plant, and is popular among amateur gardeners.
Given the prevalence of the shrub on almost all continents, it can be concluded that the gooseberry does not need to improve the degree of endurance. In Russia, it has been known as "bersen" or "kryzh" since the middle of the 16th century. But the wild bush has too small and sour fruits, numerous thorns and low yields.
The popular vitamin product interested the breeders of the V.N. Michurin. In 1959, they managed to develop a new hybrid, as a result of crossing the European varieties Date and Black Negus. Earlier varieties and hybrids of gooseberries were discovered and described in England at the beginning of the 17th century. By that time, more than a thousand varieties of gooseberries were already known.
Description of the bush and berries
The gooseberry of this variety differs from other varieties and hybrids in larger berry sizes, increased yield, characteristic color of berries, for which the variety was named Malachite.
As a result of selection, the Malachite hybrid acquired the following characteristics:
- The height of the bush is 1.3 m, spreading in the upper part, but compactly collected at the base in the root zone. Young shoots are green, slightly pubescent. On the shoots of the second year, thorns are formed, rarely located along the length of the stem.
- The mass of the berries is 5-6 g, their color is bright green at the stage of technical maturity, and upon biological maturation it acquires an amber hue, the berries have a thin skin, pronounced veins, the pulp of the fruit contains a large number of very small seeds.
- The table quality of berries is assessed by experts on a five-point scale - 3.9 - 5 points; acidity - 2%; sugar content - 8.6%; fruits are dense, with a rich characteristic aroma, high transportability and long shelf life.
- Gooseberries of the Malachite variety are used for making desserts, winter canning, and are distinguished by a high content of pectins.
- Ripening period - mid-early, fruiting period - extended.
- Productivity - 4 kg of berries from one bush; the peak of fruiting occurs at the age of three years; ovaries are formed on the shoots of the second year.
- Malachite is resistant to powdery mildew, frost resistance up to -300FROM.
Gooseberry Malachite is recommended for growing in the middle lane. With high resistance to low temperatures, gooseberries tolerate dry and hot summers much worse. It is believed that Malachite is a hybrid, but over the long years of its existence, more than 60 years, the shrub has acquired stable varietal characteristics, which gives reason to call this gooseberry a variety.
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages of the variety
High palatability at the stage of biological maturity
Powdery mildew resistant
Not resistant to anthracosis
With proper care, gooseberry Malachite bears fruit for fifteen years, starting in the second year of life. Bears abundantly from the third to the fifth year of life, then the yield decreases. But with proper care, timely pruning and renewal of shoots, the productivity of Malachite can be extended.
All varieties of gooseberries prefer cultivation in open, sunny areas, with a low occurrence of groundwater. Malachite responds with a good harvest in fertile and light areas, but the use of fertilizing should be a carefully thought-out measure.
Gooseberry seedlings purchased in the nursery are transplanted to a new place, deepening the root zone of the plant by 5-6 cm. Such a planting allows the plant to form replacement roots, and the plant tolerates transplanting more easily, which is inevitably associated with injury to the root system. Planting should be done in autumn or early spring, before sap flow begins.
Gooseberry seedlings should have 3-5 young shoots. Before planting the bush, it is recommended to treat the damaged roots with a disinfectant solution, "powder" with ash. Shoots should be cut off, leaving the length of the ground part of the plant 10-15 cm. Ideally, the length of the stems should not exceed the length of the main root.
The planting scheme of Malachite in a summer cottage can be somewhat compacted, with a lack of space. However, the shrubs should not be too thickened: this will complicate the further care of the plant, and will also adversely affect the ripening of the berries, which become sweeter under the influence of sunlight. The recommended planting scheme for gooseberry varieties Malachite 0.7-1.0 m the soil in the root zone must be compacted.
Attention! It is not recommended to add top dressing to the prepared holes when planting gooseberries.
Top dressing is best done after rooting the bush, and limited to watering. For light sandy loam soil, one bush will require 10 liters of water for an autumn planting. In the spring, when planting in wet soil, you can halve the watering rate.
The rules of care for the Malachite gooseberry are standard, as for all berry bushes. Young shoots of the first order form flower stalks next spring. Therefore, two-year-old stems must be removed regularly to prevent thickening of the bushes. It should not be forgotten that timely thinning of the shrub will eliminate the need to fight pests and diseases. Overgrown gooseberry bush gives lower yields of small and too acidic berries.
Agrotechnology for growing gooseberry Malachite consists of four mandatory stages.
The gooseberry bush Malachite, as mentioned above, has a height of 1.3 m. Such shoots, under the weight of the fruit, are capable of lodging in the fruiting phase. Therefore, support for gooseberries is necessary. There are several ways to support:
- The easiest way is to tie the shrub with twine during the ripening period. But this method only saves the stems and fruits from contact with the soil surface, where pests live - insects and pathogenic microorganisms. The inconvenience of such a support is felt when harvesting.
- Installing round or square rigid supports on racks around bushes that are larger in diameter than the area occupied by the bushes. The height of the support is 50-60 cm. In this case, the stems of the gooseberry rest freely on rigid ribs.
- The height of the Malachite stems allows the shrub to be placed on trellises. This garter method is ideal in every way.
Gooseberries bear fruit for a long time if you regularly feed the bush. You only need to make top dressing in the autumn, along the perimeter of the crown, where the tips of the roots are located. During the winter period, thanks to the introduction of a nutrient mixture, the structure of the soil will improve. It is during the transition of the plant to the resting phase that feeding is most favorable for the gooseberry. Prepare a mineral mixture:
- 50 g superphosphate;
- 25 g of ammonium sulfate;
- 25 g of potassium sulfate.
Combine the dry mixture with compost. Gooseberry top dressing is applied dry, as this berry shrub prefers slow and gradual nutrient saturation. Fertilizers dissolved in water, which are quickly absorbed, are poorly tolerated. Spread the prepared top dressing around the bush, having previously loosened the topsoil. After a couple of weeks, you can add a diluted mullein - 5 liters of organic matter per 10 liters of water per gooseberry bush.
Malachite grows annually by 10-14 shoots. Stems older than 5 years are cut at the root in the fall, and the growth of 1-3 years is cut 10 cm above the root collar. In spring, for abundant flowering and the formation of large fruits, young shoots are pinched, cutting off the tops by 10 cm.
Attention! The places where the stems are cut must be treated with garden varnish.
Preparing for winter
In the fall, after pruning and feeding, before the onset of cold weather, gooseberries are huddled, covering the root zone. Malachite is a frost-resistant shrub, but warming during the winter period contributes to the early awakening of the plant and the appearance of friendly young shoots. In the spring, before the shrub wakes up, the protective layer should be removed and the surface loosening of the soil in the root zone should be carried out, in case the larvae of pests have overwintered next to the shrub. While the larvae are asleep, pour boiling water over the area and spray it on the stems of the plant. "Hot shower" will relieve the gooseberries from the harmful neighborhood and awaken the kidneys.
Gooseberry harvest, weighing 4 kg - not so much! If you are lucky enough to get the Malachite variety, then it can be propagated on the site in several ways without much effort. Gooseberries are propagated by:
- By dividing the bush;
You can learn more about how to breed gooseberries by watching the video:
Pest and disease control
Unfortunately, rare plants bloom and bear fruit safely without attracting the attention of pests. Despite its high resistance to many diseases, gooseberry Malachite is not immune to the destruction of the crop by insects. Briefly, the control measures for the main pests are set out in the table:
Biological methods of control
Soil mulching, removal of damaged berries, infusion of tomato leaves, ash, mustard, biological products
Karbofos, Actellic, Fufanon, Spark, Gardona
Pruning old shoots, mulching, spilling the root zone with boiling water in early spring, Fitoferm
Ash or tobacco infusion (irrigation), Bitobaxibacillin
Advice! To control pests of gooseberry Malachite, use chemical remedies only as a last resort, especially during the fruiting period.
After chemical treatment, you can start picking berries no earlier than 2 weeks later, and the harvested crop must be washed thoroughly.
The Malachite variety is resistant to powdery mildew, but summer residents will have to fight other diseases when growing this variety on their own.
Gooseberries of the Malachite variety have been grown in summer cottages for a long time, and judging by the reviews of gardeners, they are very popular. Minor problems - diseases and pests, which are described above - do not reduce the demand for berry bushes. The overwhelming majority of summer residents believe that the Malachite variety is the best option for a summer residence.
Svetlana Sergeevna, Shakhty
I bought the Malachite variety by chance, at random. I wish there was at least one gooseberry bush in the country. For 10 years I have been making jam from my own gooseberries. Surprisingly, the berries are even slightly larger than in the early years. I harvest when the berries become golden and transparent: they have more sugar and aroma.
Nikolay, Voronezh region
A good variety of gooseberries is Malachite. Everyone says that gooseberries love light, but mine grows in the shade of a nut. It turns out diffused light, and matures normally. The crown of the nut is covered with dense foliage when the fruits are already formed on the gooseberry. But my Malachite never gets sick, and did not notice pests on it. They say that it is the nut that protects him, but I think the variety is hardy too.