Shallots, or Allium ascalonicum refers to perennial herbaceous plants of the genus Onions or Allium from the family Onions or Alliaceae.
For food purposes, young shallots are subject to consumption, which can be cut several times during a long growing season. Small onions, which have a very peculiar taste, can also be used as food.
Shallot owes its origin to Asia Minor. This culture became widespread in Western Europe, in the Caucasus and Moldova. It is also cultivated in the North Caucasus and Ukraine. Very often, this type of onion is used to treat eye diseases and relieve attacks of various gastric diseases.
The most popular varieties
"Kuban yellow D-322"
The variety was selected by KNIIOKH. Refers to mid-early, peninsular and drought tolerant varieties. It differs in a flat and dense bulb, which has three or four primordia. The total weight of one nest is up to 100 g, and the average weight of the bulb is 30 g.
The variety was selected by KNIIOKH. Refers to mid-ripening varieties with a growing season of about 100 days. It is characterized by a sharp taste and a high rate of keeping quality. The total yield of leaves is at least 3 kg / sq. m, and the mass of the bulbs reaches 2.6 kg / sq. m
The variety was selected by KNIIOKH. Belongs to early ripening varieties. The growing season is about 90 days. The total weight of the bulbs reaches 120 g. It differs in a round-oval shape of the bulbs, which have sufficient density, as well as lilac color. Bulb yield reaches three kilograms per 1 square meter.
The variety was selected by SibNIIR. Belongs to sharp and early ripening varieties. The bulb is characterized by a flat shape, as well as a slightly pink tinge of scales. The average weight of one bulb reaches 40 g. It has a high rate of keeping quality in the winter.
The variety with yellow scales and a very delicate, pleasant taste is very much in demand "Bonilla F-1"ultra-mature variety "Kushchevka Kharkov"amazingly keeping grade Kubanbright red variety Ural-40 and surprisingly sharp and early ripening variety "Star". All varieties are zoned, but have good resistance to weather changes.
Features of planting and growing
Shallots, the cultivation of which is becoming increasingly popular, is a prominent representative of two-year-old herbaceous plants.
- The onion is a combination of several lobules. Its size is inferior to the onion, but surpasses it in terms of maturity and keeping quality.
- Autumn planting often activates the early shooting of shallots. That is why pruning a green feather is done regularly. In addition, such an onion very often branches heavily and grows.
- The agricultural technique for growing this type of onion is very similar to the two-year growing of onions. The first year of cultivation is characterized by the formation of a small onion, under the "shirt" of which there are several onion cloves. They are dried and used for planting the next year.
- Spring and autumn planting are allowed. Shallots are weakly susceptible to temperature extremes. It is able to freeze in the soil, and then it thaws easily, without losing the ability to reproduce a green and juicy feather.
You may also be interested in an article about growing leeks on a plot.
There are two ways to use shallots.
- Less popular and popular is the spring sowing of seeds. To this end, in early spring in the open ground, rows are made. At the first shoots, it is necessary to thin out the plantings and leave a distance of at least 3 cm between the plants. This method is characterized by slow plant growth and the formation of a small number of full onions.
- The second method of breeding is vegetative propagationin which onion slices are planted in open ground. Autumn planting is preferable, however, it is allowed to use this method for the cultivation of shallots in spring. Planting is carried out according to the scheme of 20 x 10 cm. The depth of planting depends on the size of the planting material and variety.
A prerequisite for obtaining high-quality and high yield is the use of crop rotation. Planting should be carried out in ridges on which bulb crops have not been cultivated for at least four years.
The basic manipulations for the care of shallots are the same as for ordinary onions. The main care is regular watering, which must be done at least once a week. Shallots are very responsive to loosening the top layer of the beds and timely removal of all weeds.
During the summer, at least two fertilizing with organic fertilizers is necessary. The first is performed when friendly young shoots appear. The second top dressing is desirable to coincide with the moment of bulb formation.
The main consumption of the working fertilizer solution is one bucket of liquid fertilizer per ten square meters. m planting shallots. Organic fertilizers can be replaced with mineral ones. Most often, for the first feeding, a mixture of ammonium nitrate and superphosphate is used, in a ratio of 10: 10 grams per square meter. The second top dressing can be performed using potassium chloride and superphosphate, at the rate of 10: 15 grams per 1 square meter.
Diseases and Pests
Different varieties have different susceptibilities to diseases and pests.
- The most dangerous pest is an onion fly. Her larvae form a whitening at the tips of the leaves, and then affect the entire plant.
- Often shallots infect the crypto-beetle bug. He is able to incise the onion feather and lay inside the larva, which eats the flesh.
- The most common shallot disease is downy mildew, manifested by the formation of greyish plaque on the leaves.
- The southern regions are characterized by the defeat of the onion by rot of the bottom and rust.
The methods of control are similar to the protection of the planting of ordinary onions. Numerous video instructions are able to clearly demonstrate the defeat of pests and diseases, and also offer effective methods of control.
Harvesting and storage
Shallots reach maturity faster than onions. Harvesting most often occurs in the second decade of July. A signal of the degree of maturity and the need to start harvesting is the drying of the leaves.
The onion must be carefully pulled out of the ground, then divided into individual onions and carefully dried in the sun. After the ripening process, immediately before harvesting shallots, all seeds should be warmed up for two weeks.
How to plant shallots
You can store shallots in braids. You can get acquainted with the method of weaving them with the help of a training video.